38 died, 537 were wounded and hundreds left homeless by interracial battles in the summer of 1919. Gangs felled the mostly black victims at the stockyards, in streetcars, in their parlors; police clubbed and shot them when mobs were through beating them; at the same time, police and private company armies were murdering white strikers. Tuttle's backgrounding goes beyond immediate postwar inflation and unemployment. Before World War I, blacks had refused to scab, supported by the black newspaper Defender, and were being assimilated into white unions; after the war broke out, the Defender began calling Southern blacks to work in the North while organizations like the Urban League and the black YMCA, supported by Chicago industrialists, supported Negro strike-breaking. The newly-arrived blacks, utilized to blockbust and subjected to bombings, served as strikebreakers during the big 1917-19 organizing drive. With a quarter of a million Chicago workers on strike in 1919, the situation was one of class confrontation rather than sheer racial conflict. Tuttle's data furthers this view; but his massive accumulation of primary-source material is insufficiently nudged above the level of compilation. Instead of a comprehensive thesis, he tacks on a Contemporary-Relevance comparison with the ghetto upheavals of the 1960's, noting differences but stressing the Kerneresque similarities of ""white racism,"" ""rising expectations,"" and ""social unrest,"" and in effect oversimplifying them. The bibliographic essay is full and useful. An entry in the Studies in American Negro Life series.
Perhaps the most emphatic action ever taken by the Commissioner of Baseball occurred on August 3, 1921. On that day, Kenesaw Mountain Landis banished eight Chicago White Sox players from Organized Baseball for life for throwing the 1919 World Series, despite their acquittal in a court trial. The expulsion edict quickly became a baseball landmark, the signature action of Landis’ autocratic 24-year governance of the game. In later years, those following paid scant attention to the fact that Joe Jackson, Eddie Cicotte, Buck Weaver, et al, were not the first players permanently barred from the game by Landis. That dubious distinction belonged to a now-forgotten Philadelphia Phillies first baseman named Gene Paulette.
"The Black Sox Scandal of 1919 started out as a few gamblers trying to get rich, and turned into one of the biggest, and easily the darkest, event in baseball history" (Everstine 4).
The aftermath of the great World Series Scandal left many people questioning the character of Joe Jackson and whether or not he should have relations thereafter with baseball....
I this research paper I will attempt to explain a pentadic analysis, what its elements are and then provide an example of a specific situation (1919 World Series).
As did other major league cities, St. Louis had a thriving gambling scene. Its chieftain was an enterprising swashbuckler named Henry “Kid” Becker. Several works about the Black Sox relate that Becker aspired to rig the outcome of the 1918 Series between the Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs, only to have his plans frustrated by a lack of cash.11 Becker was shot to death in April 1919, but he was not the only St. Louis gambler with an interest in the outcome of major league baseball games. Becker acolytes such as Farrar, a local bookmaker, and Zork, ostensibly the manufacturer of women’s clothing, also followed the game closely.12 In time, this pair insinuated themselves into Gene Paulette’s life and hastened his exit from the game.
Moreover, it explains more clearly than any other work how the failure of peacemaking in 1919 shaped later history and, indeed, shapes our own era." - Ernest R.
With player ranks thinned by the personnel demands of World War I, the 1918 St. Louis Cardinals were a last place (51-78) team. Gene Paulette, however, turned in decent numbers, batting .273, with 52 RBIs, second-best on the club. The Cardinals also took advantage of his defensive versatility. Although primarily stationed at first base, Paulette also saw action at the other infield positions and the outfield. He even made a brief pitching appearance during a meaningless late-season game.13 The following season, Paulette got off to a poor start. He was batting only .215, with a mere six extra-base hits in 43 games when traded to the Philadelphia Phillies in mid-July 1919.14 The seeds of his expulsion from baseball, however, remained in St. Louis.
takes the risk of having readers who wouldn’t recognize the allusions
Allusion #1 -Midas, Morgan, Maecenas
“I bought a dozen volumes on banking and credit and investment securities, and they stood on my shelf in red and gold like new money from the mint, promising to unfold the shining secrets that only
Midas and Morgan and Maecenas
knew." (Fitzgerald 10)
Allusion #3 - 1919 World Series
In September 1920, a Chicago grand jury was convened to investigate the reported fix of an August 31 game between the Cubs and the Phillies. The probe quickly shunted the inquiry into the Cubs-Phillies game aside to focus on the suspiciously-played 1919 World Series between the Chicago White Sox and the Cincinnati Reds. The revelations leaked from the proceedings and the indictments thereafter returned against eight Sox players and assorted gamblers on Series fix-related charges unnerved baseball’s establishment. The signal result of the Black Sox scandal was the appointment of United States District Court Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as a new, all-powerful commissioner of baseball.
I accepted a commission as
when it began." (Fitzgerald 64)
“He was a
son of a god
– a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that” (Fitzgerald 95)
Relation to Gatsby
- Loved to have parties and show off his wealth (Midas)
- Likes to tell stories of his accomplishments and his past (Maecenas)
- Gatsby = "son of God"
implies higher power which relates to Morgan's superiority in business and Maecenas' control of Italy.
In Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, not only do the allusions create a remind readers of the 1920s, but it also gives the novel a sense of periodic timelessness.
What is the world series?
Championship series (The finals)
- popular sport to watch in 1920s
This year(1919) - Best out of
-Chicago White Sox
What happened in the 1919 scandal?
Chicago players to lose
the bribe and
7/8 players admitted they were guilty
Why is this allusion important?
Fitzgerald gives his
Allows Meyer Wolfsheim to be
as Arnold Rothstein
The untested rookie saw no action in the 1911 World Series, lost by the Giants in six games to the Philadelphia A’s. Still, his new teammates awarded Paulette a one-quarter ($609.10) loser’s share of their Series money,4 a generous allocation to a rookie who had appeared in only 10 regular season games. Then, when regular first baseman Fred Merkle balked at making a Giants exhibition game tour of Cuba, Paulette replaced him. Before the club set sail for the Caribbean, Gene returned home to marry Mary Elizabeth Mahoney, the daughter of an Argenta (now North Little Rock) hotel and saloon keeper.5 The newlyweds honeymooned in Havana.6 In the coming years, they had two children, a daughter also named Mary Elizabeth (born in 1916), and a son, Eugene, Jr. (1917).