Organic chemistry: “Hydrolysis of carboxylic acid derivatives”. Hydrolysis of carboxylic acid derivatives ( halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, and ) to form carboxylic acids. attack of alcohols and amines on carboxylic acids and acid derivatives to form esters and amides. Lithium aluminum hydride reduction of and , carboxylic acids, and esters to form alcohols
Organic chemistry: “Introduction to amines”. Amine nomenclature. and of amines. Synthesis of amines—through SN2, through lithium aluminum hydride (LAH) reduction of amides or , through the Gabriel synthesis, or through reductive . Overview of LAH reductions—of and , of carboxylic acids, of esters, of amides, and of .
Organic chemistry: “Amino acid and polypeptide synthesis”. Amino acid synthesis--Gabriel synthesis; synthesis. degradation. Polypeptide synthesis-- () and () amino-protecting groups; protection of the terminus via ester formation; DCC () -activating reagent. An example of calculating and charge at a specific pH for a long polypeptide
Organic chemistry: “Introduction to amino acids and peptides”. Biochemistry. How to draw amino acids. Acid/base properties of amino acids. Finding net charge of amino acids and peptides (proteins) at a specified pH. of amino acids and peptides. Peptide (amide) bonds. Amino acid sequencing with partial digestion by enzymes such as . Total acid hydrolysis (TAH)
Alkylation of Dicarbonyl Compounds
Diethyl malonate is reacted with base, alkylated, then hydrolyzed to yield a substituted acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and ethanol. Ethyl acetoacetate is treated with base, alkylated, then hydrolyzed to yield a substituted acetone, carbon dioxide, and ethanol.