e. What if you have the opportunity for conducting your researchin conjunction with another agency or project that is workingin related areas. Should you do it? Sometimes this works well, but mostoften the dissertation researcher gives up valuable freedom to conductthe research project in conjunction with something else. Make sure thetrade-offs are in your favor. It can be very disastrous to havethe other project suddenly get off schedule and to find your own research projecttemporarily delayed. Or, you had tripled the size of your sample sincethe agency was willing to pay the cost of postage. They paid for the postagefor the pre-questionnaire. Now they are unable to assist with postage forthe post-questionnaire. What happens to your research? I usually findthat the cost of conducting dissertation research is not prohibitive andthe trade-offs to work in conjunction with another agency are not in favorof the researcher. Think twice before altering your project to accommodatesomeone else. Enjoy the power and the freedom to make your own decisions(and mistakes!) -- this is the way we learn!
patches of standing water
the scattering of tall trees From these exertions a veritable landscape emerges, presupposing, as it heaves itselfinto focus, a mind quite experienced in distinguishing among such apparently familiarobjects and in acknowledging their relation to one another.
from "Seeing the Signs: Objectivist Premonitions in Williams' Spring and All." Sagetrieb 8.3The poem is a fine example of Williams' verbal Cubist Realism. Thedescriptiveness of the verses seems straightforward but is actually a carefully contrivedverbal effect. The first line brings Whitman to Eliot's ailing world, the open road hasled to the contagious hospital at the bleak end of winter. The first group of irregular,unrhymed lines seems to gloss published the year before. "Thewind / Crosses the brown land, unheard," Eliot wrote, and Williams' redaction alsouses the reiterated dental consonants--d's and t's--especially at the end of words andsyllables, to suggest the balked stasis of the scene: "road,""clouds," "cold," "wind," "mottled,""northeast," "cold wind," "beyond," "waste,""broad," "muddy," "fields," "dried weeds,""standing," and so on. In addition, the alliteration, assonance, and internalnear rhymes further link the details in a pervasive sterility: "road,"cold"; "driven, ""wind"; "northeast,""waste"; "broad," "brown"; "fields, "weeds";"dried weeds." Though there is no human person present, the implications of thescene for human life are intimated not just by the hospital but by the anthropomorphicassociations of words like "standing and fallen," "upstanding,""forked," and "naked" (the last two perhaps echoes of Lear'sunillusioned description of man), So, from the very beginning, the word play and soundplay insist to the reader on the character of the medium as medium and thus on the verbalcomposition of the scene.The dropping of the expected capital letter at the beginning of eachline insists on the interplay between lines, as does the heavy enjambment. Butparadoxically, the enjambment also emphasizes the fact that each line is an individualstructural unit shaped to reinforce the dynamic process of sensory and intellectiveapprehension rather than the syntactic organization of the sentence. The Whitmanian freeverse line, capitalized and end-stopped, stretches itself out to be as long and inclusiveas possible, gathering in detail after detail, phrasal group after phrasal group,concluding only when the breath has run out, to begin again with the next breath to sum upthe interrelatedness of all things; the lines accumulate paratactically as repeatedefforts to submerge the particulars in the cosmic design. Williams' line is shorter,tenser, more nervous; the enjambment cuts and splices the grammatical elements of thesentence, using the highlighting at the beginning and end of the verse to focus on thediscrete but related elements of the re-created scene. The line units work against, ratherthan with, the sentence; and the resulting line fragments remake the sentence--and thescene--into a unique pattern.Thus the suspension between "blue" and "mottled"emphasizes both adjectival qualities, individually and in contrast, before substantiatingthem in "clouds." The next two lines end, startlingly, in the unspecifiedarticle "the," emphasizing even more the nouns at the beginning of the followinglines. The effect of such Cubistic rearrangement can be easily grasped if the same wordsare lineated to observe grammatical groupings:
Or, in longer lines:under the surge
of the blue mottled clouds
driven from the northeast--
a cold wind.
Beyond, the waste of broad muddy fields
The vivid particularity of details is muted without the hang and turnand shift of Williams'jagged enjambment, maintained throughout the poem. . . .The turn in the poem takes place between the third and fourth verseparagraphs. The first-word rhyming of "leafless" and "lifeless"signals the association between "leaf" and "life.""Lifeless" repeats "leafless," just as "sluggish" picks upon "reddish, purplish ... stuff." But in the second half of the poem theassociation between "leaf" and "life" turns from negation to renewal:"wildcarrot leaf," "outline of leaf." Even from the start, the poemhas given clues that spring will arrive to break winter's deadlock. The word"surge" is the first premonition (recall "Urge and urge and urge, / Alwaysthe procreant urge of the world" from the third section of "Song ofMyself"), and the wind as the breath of spring, though "cold" in the firstparagraph, becomes "familiar" as it blows life in, the process punctuated bytemporal markers: "Now," "tomorrow," "One by one," "Butnow," "Still." The last "all" finds the transformative wind"all about them," and the waste land is a "new world."under the surge of the blue mottled clouds
driven from the northeast -- a cold wind.
Beyond, the waste of broad muddy fields.
From . Copyright 1987 by Cambridge University Press.Without involving ourselves in the intricacies Bloomian anxieties ofinfluence, it is enough to say that poems answer poems and that in the June 1923Issue of Williams answered with his nowfamous lyric "By the road to the contagious hospital," which in was simply titled "Poem.""The contagious hospital" is a spring poem and so, really, is the whole of which is a waiting for revivifying spring rain. Itbegins
April is the cruelest month, breedingThen, after fourteen monological lines beginning with "Winter kept uswarm," Eliot resumes his meditation on spring with
Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing
Memory with desire, stirring
Dull roots with spring rain. (473)
What are the roots that clutch, what branches growThis desolate imagery continues for nine lines, and then"You gave me hyacinths first a year ago;
Out of this stony rubbish? Son of man,
You cannot say or guess, . . . (474)
This poem does not simply describe the physical qualities in alandscape; its center is an of perception, "the stark dignity of /entrance," the slow penetration of a desolate landscape by an awakening observer. Wefollow the thrust of his imagination downward, through obstacles, to a new union with thephysical environment. The progression in the poem is literally downward: the observer goesfrom "the blue / mottled clouds," across a distant view of "broad, muddyfields," to the quickening plant life right before him--and then penetrates evenfurther downward, into the dark earth, as he imagines the roots taking hold again. Thepanoramic view, with its prospect of "muddy fields," dried weeds, "patchesof standing water," offers nothing with which the imagination might joyously connectitself. At first an apparently blank and "lifeless" nature invites the observerto passivity and despair; but Williams pushes through vacancy to uncover dormant life.
Implicitly, "By the road" argues that Eliot's despair derivesfrom his cosmopolitanism, his detachment from a locality. What the tenacious observer herefinally perceives is no "waste" land but a "new world" and he makeshis discovery by narrowing and focusing Whitman's panoramic vision upon the near and theordinary. In the torpor of ordinary consciousness, what we find by the road to thecontagious hospital is a desolate landscape. But the awakened consciousness, focusedsharply and including everything in the scene, discovers novelty and life, the first"sluggish / dazed" stirrings of spring. Hence poet and landscape are graduallyidentified--as he too grips down and begins to awaken.
This is a poem of discovery, of the gradual emergence of the sense of spring from whatlooks otherwise like a disease of winter. The "contagious hospital" is both acolloquial usage, by doctors and patients, for the longer name, and a hospital that isitself contagious, that leaks its presence out onto the road. The cold wind will berevealed as a spring wind, but not before the poem's complex act of noticing has beencompleted. The meter here is a typographic strip about 30 ems wide with a general tendencyto break syntax at tight points (lines 3 and 4 are normal, rather than exceptional); butnotice the traditional use of discovery-enjambment in lines 2 and 3"under thesurge of the blue" because of its audible dactylic melody aims the syntax at a nounversion of "blue," a metonymy for sky. But the next line discovers its mereadjectival use, appositively with "mottled," and the hopefulness of upwardmotion, the brief bit of visual and perhaps spiritual ascendancy is undercut by thebleakness of the wintry scene, and the totality of the non-greenness, even the exclusionof available blue. For the buds of spring do indeed look, at first, like tumorousnastinesses of the branch. But the poem moves toward the avowal of the discovery:"Now the grass, tomorrow / the stiff curl of wildcarrot leaf." Its realconclusion, however, is revealed in the final moralization: "One by one objects aredefined-- / It quickens: clarity, outline of leaf." The action of the poem isspecifically discovered to be one of as one rotates a knob on theconsciousness, the objects are defined, both in the world of the poem and by the poem, bypoems in general. In its moralization, the poem is like "The Red Wheelbarrow," amanifesto about poetry. It is full of light, too, which it does not directly confront, thelight that, as a younger poet has put it "wipes each thing to what it is,'' the lightthat takes us past what Stevens called "the evasions of metaphor." This is asvisual a poem in every sense as one could find, a soundless picture of a soundless world,its form shaped rather than incanted, its surface like that of so much Modern poetry, nowreflecting, now revealing its depths and, as the conscious wind of attention blows overit, now displaying the wavy texture of its surface. Put together from fragments ofassertion, it has virtually no rhetorical sound. But its shape has become a familiaroneparticularly for contemporary poetry of the eyeabout its possibilities,betrayals and rewards, about rediscoveries of the visionary in the visual.
This "second phase" constitutes a kind of clarified vision on the part of themind within whose field of consciousness the scene appears that develops over the firstfour stanzas. Poem I, like the poems that follow it in represents(among other of Williams' assignments) a conscious attempt to externalize the form of themind's perceptual intake of sense-experience. In the transition from perception toimagination, reality isn't changed but more fully and imaginatively entered. Thedescription of a late-winter landscape metamorphoses, once the poet apprehends in advancethe miraculous quickening of incipient life. In stanzas six and seven the process throughwhich "dazed spring approaches" displays unmistakable dramatic elements; as aconsequence, life in the poem bursts imaginatively into being:
9. Make sure your proposal has a comprehensive review of the literatureincluded. Now this idea, at first thought, may not seem to make sense.I have heard many students tell me that "This is only the proposal.I'll do a complete literature search for the dissertation. I don't wantto waste the time now." But, this is the time to do it. The rationalebehind the literature review consists of an argument with two lines of analysis: 1) this research is needed, and 2) the methodology I have chosen is most appropriate for the question that is being asked. Now, why would you want to wait? Now is the time to get informed and to learn from others who havepreceded you! If you wait until you are writing the dissertation it is toolate. You've got to do it some time so you might as well get on with itand do it now. Plus, you will probably want to add to the literature reviewwhen you're writing the final dissertation.
These sentences act to appeal ironically to the reverdie tradition in English poetry(especially as rendered in Chaucer's "The General Prologue" to "Whan that April with his showres soote / The droughte of March hathperced to the roote"). Eliot reverses the reverdie's popular form: a celebratorydance poem which serves as herald to spring. In Tiresias insteadlaments the coming of spring; winter is recalled fondly, "feeding / A little lifewith dried tubers" but, mostly, "covering Earth in forgetful snow."Williams' opening lines, on the other hand, evoke an ostensibly sterile winter scene, theobjective correlative, it would seem, of Tiresias' state of mind:
The role of the working thesis is to lessen the stress of writing a collegiate essay and to incorporate some flexibility into the writing process. Knowing that a working thesis will be subjected to numerous revisions allows the writer more freedom when writing the essay.
On a broader scale, it is also concerned with addressing the relationship of these endings to something which (I think it is fair to say) most believe Hollywood seldom attempts to do: depict romantic love `realistically'....