> remember, this intelligence apparatus mistook a Chinese embassay in the Balkans for a Serbian headquarters, making it the destiny of a precision bomb.
The Master of Public Policy (M.P.P.) program is a two-year professional degree program administered by both the School of Social Ecology and the School of Social Sciences.
Bruce, though I agree with your general conclusion that false positive and negative rates will make a data mining application very difficult, and I also think your gouvernement not always applies the smartest tacktics, it does depend a little on how the mining is set-up. For instance, if it is used to explore social networks of people associated with terrorism and to watch events in these networks the process will become easier. So if a specific person or object is coupled to a general pattern or profile, the haystack might become a bit more transparent and better structured. However, it seems that it is not always done like that.
Second, Clausewitz declared that all wars could be considered acts of policy. Otherwise, the entire effort contradicts the history of war. It is absolutely essential therefore that:
To his credit, Ross argues that these psychological factors constitute a process inclining, though not determining, an individual to become a terrorist. Further, he embeds the psychological model in a larger model of historical and structural factors that define the contexts, either facilitating or inhibiting, in which the processes operate. The full model incorporating both psychological and structural factors summarizes numerous hypotheses about causal paths. This is an ambitious and commendable effort to organize all that has been learned about terrorists and terrorism, as the basis for further research. However, the vast body of research on which it is based is extremely uneven in quality, in terms of both conceptual and methodological rigor. In particular, the psychological studies have generally ignored the political and ideological clashes in which terrorists and terrorism are defined. The assumption of psychopathology has dominated the field of terrorist research, and the measurement of psychological variables has been characterized by low reliability and dubious validity.
One area where data mining can be useful, it seems, is to develop interesting information about people we already now to be bad actors. Some of that can be fed back to identify new folks. But in the initial cases the profile is absolutely as specific as one could ask, since the subjects are known to be terrorists...
I want to stop terrorists. I don't want to waste money and time on programs that don't do anything to actually stop them, but might look like they do.
With this in mind, it is very important that everything about the school environment rears positive outcomes for children and adolescents because they spend most of their time there.
This essay will explore the topic of the characteristics of school environments that promote positive student outcomes and the studies that suggest the importance of these characteristics....
The end product of the radicalization process is a dedicated terrorist, whose convictions are nonetheless real even though based as much on isolation and lack of knowledge as much as on collegial support and knowledge of political realities. To the terrorist, responsibility for terrorism and its casualties lies with the opposition, whose threats and intransigence have forced adoption of the terrorist option. The struggle is not a "fantasy war" but a real one.
In the realm of policy, first and foremost, the question must be asked: Is the United States truly at war in the war on terror? The determinations of the 9/11 Commission Report indicate that the United States is in popular deed, if not in legal fact, a nation at war, and lead to the Commission’s recommendations for establishing national objectives and a national strategy for conducting the war on terror. (1) The findings of the 9/11 Commission meet two of the three critical elements in Clausewitz’s military-political definition of war. First, that the effort is directed toward an identified opponent and, second, that it involves violence or use of force to compel our opponent to fulfill our will. According to the 9/11 Commission the United States’ opponent in the war on terror consists of the terrorist groups and their allies, particularly the global al Qaeda network, that form the threat of Islamist terrorism, thereby satisfying the first element of war: an effort directed at an identified opponent. (2) Although there are problems with this definition, particularly that it falls short of defining the full scope of the threat to the United States, it represents a start in developing a national objective and strategy. The use of American and allied forces to find and destroy terrorist groups, most notably in Afghanistan and Iraq, partially fulfills the second element of war: the use of violence or force to compel our opponent to meet our will. (3) The issue to be resolved is whether the insurgent groups in Afghanistan and Iraq are the right enemy, at the right time, and in the right place.
Environments of terrorism. Excepting the most ruthless dictatorships, terrorist organizations have emerged in virtually every kind of society: democratic and authoritarian, developed and developing, ethnically or racially diverse and homogeneous societies. The diversity of social and cultural environments of terrorism has, so far anyway, defeated efforts to explain terrorism by pointing to class, racial, or other social inequalities; economic exploitation or decline; political oppression; demographic imbalances; or other social structural factors. (For exhaustive reviews of general theories of terrorism and other forms of political violence, see Schmid and Jongman, and Zimmermann.) If theories focused on political and economic factors have achieved little, their failure has at a minimum encouraged the questioning of the common assumption that violence is a political abnormality somehow caused by political and/or economic inequities. That violence may well be not just a potential aberration but an ever-present option in political conflicts is suggested by Laqueur's observation that terrorist organizations usually arise from "a split between the moderate and the more extreme wings of an already-existing organization" (p. 104).
The Center for Language Science is a multidisciplinary, interactive research community aimed at understanding how language is organized in the human mind, how this system of knowledge is learned, how is it understood and expressed, and how it is represented and processed by the brain. This effort spans a wide range of scientific research areas, from basic and clinical hearing research to computational and psychological models of the structure and processing of linguistic knowledge to detailed neuroanatomical models hearing, comprehending, and speaking derived from advanced neuroimaging and clinical-based methods. Accordingly, Center faculty are drawn from several departments and schools at UCI including Cognitive Sciences, Psychology and Social Behavior, Anthropology, Computer Science, Logic and Philosophy of Science, Mathematics, Education, Humanities, Biological Sciences, and Medicine. The Center for Language Science has three specific aims: (1) to promote an integrated, multidisciplinary research program on language from the unique and diverse perspective afforded by UCI’s faculty; (2) to promote and guide training in the field of language science; and (3) to inform and guide the development of new clinical applications for hearing, speech, and language disorders that impact millions of people worldwide. Learn more at the .