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In chili pepper plants, anthocyanin

P is absorbed mainly during the vegetative growth and,thereafter, most of the absorbed P is re-translocated into fruits and seedsduring reproductive stages. P-deficient plants exhibit retarded growth (reducedcell and leaf expansion, respiration and photosynthesis), and often a dark greencolour (higher chlorophyll concentration) and reddish coloration (enhancedanthocyanin formation). It has been reported that the level of P supply duringreproductive stages regulates the partitioning of photosynthates between thesource leaves and the reproductive organs, this effect being essential forN-fixing legumes (Marschner, 1993). Healthy animals and human beings alsorequire adequate amounts of P in their food for normal metabolic processes (FAO,1984, 1995a).

Because of the commercial importance of grapes ( spp.), it is important to understand how grape coloration is affected by genetic and environmental factors, as this knowledge may contribute to more stable production of high-quality grapes. The color of berry skins is determined mainly by the quantity and composition of anthocyanins. This review summarizes the results of recent studies of the genetic and environmental regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin: (i) The myeloblastosis (MYB) haplotype composition at the color locus is the major genetic factor that determines the anthocyanin content. (ii) The MYB haplotype composition at the color locus and the locus are major genetic determinants of the ratios of tri- to di-hydroxylated anthocyanins and of methylated to non-methylated anthocyanins. (iii) The accumulation of anthocyanins depends on both low temperature and light, and the two factors have a synergistic effect on the expression of genes within the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. (iv) Comprehensive transcriptome analysis using a grape oligo-DNA microarray let my research group identify many candidate genes involved in low-temperature-induced abscisic acid signaling and light signaling networks related to anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skin. These findings will allow prediction of the skin color of grapes from seedlings at a very young stage by examining the MYB haplotype composition. Furthermore, these results will contribute to a fuller understanding of how grape coloration is affected by environmental factors, thereby helping grape growers to develop cultivation techniques that contribute to the production of highly pigmented grapes.

Besides being found in several plant parts, anthocyanin

Usually, anthocyanin-accumulating plant ex-

Effect of anthocyanin promoting conditions on pigment composition in Vitis vinifera cell cultures.

N2 - Anthocyanin accumulation and expression pattern of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were investigated in developing coleoptiles of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In epidermal cell layers of the growing coleoptiles of cv. Hope, anthocyanins started to accumulate between day 2 and 3 after germination, reached their maximum on day 6 and then decreased while another cultivar, Chinese Spring (CS) did not accumulate anthocyanin pigments. None of the six anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was upregulated in coleoptiles of both cvs. grown in the dark, whereas all genes were activated by light in coleoptiles of cv. Hope. Transcript levels of all the six genes were relatively low on day 2, increased from days 3 to 5 and then declined to almost non-detectable levels on day 6. In coleoptiles of CS grown in the light, the early biosynthesis genes (EBGs) were expressed, but the three late biosynthesis genes (LBGs) were not.

Factors affecting the biosynthesis of the various anthocyanins in blueberries, including agronomic and genetic factors, and the possible pathways of biosynthesis of the major anthocyanins present in this plant are discussed.

specific features of anthocyanin biosynthesis ..

The expression of SlMyb7-like, anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the content of anthocyanin in the miR828 overexpressed tomatoes were lower than that in control plants under phosphate deficiency.

To stretch the threshhold of anthocyanin production in plant cell culture - a molecular bio-processing approach.

AB - Anthocyanin accumulation and expression pattern of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were investigated in developing coleoptiles of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In epidermal cell layers of the growing coleoptiles of cv. Hope, anthocyanins started to accumulate between day 2 and 3 after germination, reached their maximum on day 6 and then decreased while another cultivar, Chinese Spring (CS) did not accumulate anthocyanin pigments. None of the six anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was upregulated in coleoptiles of both cvs. grown in the dark, whereas all genes were activated by light in coleoptiles of cv. Hope. Transcript levels of all the six genes were relatively low on day 2, increased from days 3 to 5 and then declined to almost non-detectable levels on day 6. In coleoptiles of CS grown in the light, the early biosynthesis genes (EBGs) were expressed, but the three late biosynthesis genes (LBGs) were not.

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Genetic and Developmental Control of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis


Article · Literature Review ..

Because of the commercial importance of grapes ( spp.), it is important to understand how grape coloration is affected by genetic and environmental factors, as this knowledge may contribute to more stable production of high-quality grapes. The color of berry skins is determined mainly by the quantity and composition of anthocyanins. This review summarizes the results of recent studies of the genetic and environmental regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berry skin: (i) The myeloblastosis (MYB) haplotype composition at the color locus is the major genetic factor that determines the anthocyanin content. (ii) The MYB haplotype composition at the color locus and the locus are major genetic determinants of the ratios of tri- to di-hydroxylated anthocyanins and of methylated to non-methylated anthocyanins. (iii) The accumulation of anthocyanins depends on both low temperature and light, and the two factors have a synergistic effect on the expression of genes within the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. (iv) Comprehensive transcriptome analysis using a grape oligo-DNA microarray let my research group identify many candidate genes involved in low-temperature-induced abscisic acid signaling and light signaling networks related to anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skin. These findings will allow prediction of the skin color of grapes from seedlings at a very young stage by examining the MYB haplotype composition. Furthermore, these results will contribute to a fuller understanding of how grape coloration is affected by environmental factors, thereby helping grape growers to develop cultivation techniques that contribute to the production of highly pigmented grapes.

Anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. …

Phosphorus (P) is an element that is widely distributed innature and occurs, together with nitrogen (N) and potassium (K), as a primaryconstituent of plant and animal life. P plays a series of functions in the plantmetabolism and is one of the essential nutrients required for plant growth anddevelopment. It has functions of a structural nature in macromolecules such asnucleic acids and of energy transfer in metabolic pathways of biosynthesis anddegradation. Unlike nitrate and sulphate, phosphate is not reduced in plants butremains in its highest oxidized form (Marschner, 1993).

Anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis

Anthocyanin accumulation and expression pattern of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were investigated in developing coleoptiles of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In epidermal cell layers of the growing coleoptiles of cv. Hope, anthocyanins started to accumulate between day 2 and 3 after germination, reached their maximum on day 6 and then decreased while another cultivar, Chinese Spring (CS) did not accumulate anthocyanin pigments. None of the six anthocyanin biosynthesis genes was upregulated in coleoptiles of both cvs. grown in the dark, whereas all genes were activated by light in coleoptiles of cv. Hope. Transcript levels of all the six genes were relatively low on day 2, increased from days 3 to 5 and then declined to almost non-detectable levels on day 6. In coleoptiles of CS grown in the light, the early biosynthesis genes (EBGs) were expressed, but the three late biosynthesis genes (LBGs) were not.

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