a nation of Negroes, inhabiting part of the seaboard of the Gold Coast colony, British West Africa, and about 20,000 sq. m. of the interior. They number about a million. They have many traditions of early migrations. It seems probable that the Fanti and Ashanti were originally one race, driven from the north-east towards the sea by more powerful races, possibly the ancestors of Fula and Hausa. There are many words in Fanti for plants and animals not now existing in the country, but which abound in the Gurunsi and Moshi countries farther north. These regions have been always haunted by slave-raiders, and possibly these latter may have influenced the exodus. At any rate, the Fanti were early driven into the forests from the open plains and slopes of the hills. The name Fanti, an English version of , is supposed to be derived from , a wild cabbage, and , or , to eat; the story being that upon the exile of the tribe the only available food was some such plant. They are divided into seven tribes, obviously totemic, and with rules as to exogamy still in force. (1) , buffalo; (2) , leopard; (3) , bush-cat; (4) , dog; (5) , parrot; (6) , lion; and (7) , corn-stalk; these names are obsolete, though the meanings are known. The tribal marks are three gashes in front of the ear on each side in a line parallel to the jaw-bone. The Fanti language has been associated by A.B. Ellis with the Ashanti speech as the principal descendant of an original language, possibly the Tshi (pronounced Tchwi), which is generally considered as the parent of Ashanti, Fanti, Akim, Akwapim and modern Tshi.
This is powerful and passionate writing. There has been nothing in the poem quite like this straightforward attack on "some" established English preachers—the qualifier is perhaps self-protective—as "vile ambitious bawds." This is the first clear instance in the poem of "railing," of the Juvenalian mode of "bold and open crying out against naughtiness." As the extraordinary lines on Mirreus and English state-worship implied, Donne has contempt for the whole system of state-enforced religion, with its ambitious preachers willing to sell "faire Religion" to the highest political bidder and with its associated legislative system constantly issuing new laws to regulate religious behavior. The idea of "ideological state apparatuses" would not have surprised Donne. He does not, however, see its power over thought and behavior as irresistible.
The apocalyptic element in is understood best in terms of what Frank Kermode describes as a "readjustment of expectations in regard to an end which is so notable a feature of naive apocalyptic"--the brand of apocalypticism dominant in Shakespeare's own day.51 The apocalyptic vision of St. John contains both optimistic and pessimistic elements, although historically one or the other has prevailed often to the extent that one element obscures the other. In the sixteenth century, the bleak vision of the Apocalypse was on the ascendancy until 1588 when there was a great surge of optimism about England's future, an optimism that heightened during the early years of James's reign, and was fostered by both the king and his supporters. Shakespeare's play moves against this tide not to obliterate that optimism but clearly to moderate it. Apocalypse may be foregrounded at the conclusion of Shakespeare's play, but only to be subdued within a prophetic perspective. A deeply pessimistic reading of the Apocalypse holds that there is no hope for improving man's lot until the end of the world. While Shakespeare's play is not replete with optimism, it does have the effect of tempering such gloom by representing that which has been without canceling out dreams of what ought to be, or of what one day may be.
Such a context clarifies Shakespeare's strategies in : he alters a received legend so as to allow for the intrusion of an apocalyptic view of history which his play, designated by its title as "True Chronicle Historie," will thereupon examine. If Dr. Johnson thought that ran "contrary to the natural ideas of justice ... and, what is yet more strange, to the faith of chronicles" ( p. 419), Shakespeare, we may surmise, thought that the Lear story as reported in the chronicles ran contrary to history itself. The story was always, and preeminently, a mirror upon history, a reflection of its course, and so to modify the story was to alter the course of history itself. One of Shakespeare's revisions--his making England rather than France triumphant--if necessitated by the spirit of the age, still implies some flirting with the idea of England as elect nation. Another of his revisions, and one far more crucial to the play--his allowing Lear and Cordelia to die--has been the crux in a criticism concerned with the fate of individuals and not of nations, with the contours of a legend but not the history it recounted.
The population slightly exceeds 2000. The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is ScottishâScottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos. In 1867 there were no settlers on the west island, and the government issued a proclamation offering leases of grazing stations on very moderate terms. In 1868 all the available land was occupied. These lands are fairly healthy, the principal drawback being the virulent form assumed by simple epidemic maladies. The occupation of the inhabitants is almost entirely pastoral, and the principal industry is sheep-farming. Wool forms by far the largest export, and tallow, hides, bones and frozen mutton are also exported. Trade is carried on almost entirely with the United Kingdom; the approximate annual value of exports is Â£120,000, and of imports a little more than half that sum. The Falkland Islands Company, having its headquarters at Stanley and an important station in the camp at Darwin, carries on an extensive business in sheep-farming and the dependent industries, and in the general import trade. The development of this undertaking necessitated the establishment of stores and workshops at Stanley, and ships can be repaired and provided in every way; a matter of importance since not a few vessels, after suffering injury during heavy weather off Cape Horn, call on the Falklands in distress. The maintenance of the requisite plant and the high wages current render such repairs somewhat costly. A former trade in oil and sealskin has decayed, owing to the smaller number of whales and seals remaining about the islands. Communications are maintained on horseback and by water, and there are no roads except at Stanley. There is a monthly mail to and from England, the passage occupying about four weeks.
English cathedral churches, at the present day, may beclassed under four heads: (1) the old secular cathedral churchesof the “Old Foundation,” enumerated in the earlier part of thisarticle; (2) the churches of the “New Foundation” of HenryVIII., which are the monastic churches already specified, withthe exception of Bath and Coventry; (3) the cathedral churchesof bishoprics founded by Henry VIII., viz. Bristol, Chester,Gloucester, Oxford and Peterborough (the constitution of thechapters of which corresponds to those of the New Foundation);(4) modern cathedral churches of sees founded since 1836, viz.(a) Manchester, Ripon and Southwell, formerly collegiate churchesof secular canons; (b) St Albans and Southwark, originallymonastic churches; (c) Truro, Newcastle and Wakefield,formerly parish churches, (d) Birmingham and Liverpool,originally district churches. The ruined cathedral church ofthe diocese of Sodor ( the Southern Isles) and Man, at Peelin the latter island, appears never to have had a chapter of clergyattached to it.
Whereas the antitheatricalists conclude that all forms of theater are polluted and should be forbidden, the dramatists seek to reform the stage, developing rhetorical strategies that disrupt older modes of sight and producing plays that conform to Protestant theories of art and representation.
The geographical possibilities must first be discursively rejected. We begin to get satirical portraits, and with these portraits, the poem finds its voice. Since the first is of a Catholic, we might think that we will be getting a typically "Anglican" scheme of extremes followed by a proper, modestly Protestant mean. But this is not what Donne gives us. Mirreus, the Catholic, is an Englishman, by birth presumably a Protestant, who leaves "here" and seeks "true religion" at Rome, "because hee doth know / That she was there a thousand yeares agoe" (45–46). What makes this choice irrational is the clear implication that true religion is no longer "there." The present situation is different from that of "a thousand yeares agoe." The substance is gone; "He loves her ragges" (47a). Just at this point, however, when "we" (as an English Protestant—and, as we have seen, male—audience) are smugly contemptuous of the misguided and relic-worshiping Mirreus, Donne asserts a continuity between Mirreus's behavior "there" and our behavior here: "He loves her ragges so, as we here obey / The statecloth where the Prince sate yesterday" (47–48). Suddenly idolatry is not some weird thing that they do "there" but a familiar thing that we do here, and it is suddenly and disconcertingly operative in a secular context, in a context not of bizarre religious practice but of political obedience. There is perhaps even an implication that Mirreus learned the habit of mind that sent him to the Roman church from the English attitude toward the state. Moreover if,
However Shakespeare assimilated it, whether from reading Sextus Empiricus, the author of an ancient Greek manual of skepticism rediscovered and translated into English in the sixteenth century, or from the skeptical essays of a near-contemporary, Michel de Montaigne, or from the general uncertainty of life that permeated the culture of the times, skepticism emerges in and elsewhere in Shakespeare's plays. This is so even though he probably would not have denied the traditional view about souls any more than Montaigne would have allowed himself to do. Lear's declaration about "lendings" is a philosophical statement (with a postmodern skeptical ring) of the way personal identity is something borrowed, something acquired from the outside. What is there to begin with is something rudimentary and impersonal and material.
 For anxiety about cuckoldry in early modern England, see Katherine Eisaman Maus, "Horns of Dilemma: Jealousy, Gender, and Spectatorship in English Renaissance Drama," 54 (1987): 561–83.
Dress had never been more metaphysical than it was in the courts of Elizabeth and James I. It is pertinent to the idea of personality as a change of clothes that it was in the late sixteenth century when the word acquired the modern meaning of a temporarily favored style of clothing--"the mode of dress ... adopted in society for the time being," as the states--when to say that something is "in fashion" became a way of saying that it might soon be "out of fashion." What dress signified was similarly changeable. A modern audience will miss the topicality of Lear's odd remark to Edgar in his beggar's rags, "I do not like the fashion of your garments. You will say they are Persian attire, but let them be changed." A Persian embassy had arrived in London early in the reign of James I; there was a "fashion" for Persian silk fabrics and even costume, marking the beginning of the English assimilation of exotic identities. Sir Robert Shirley, who had gone to Persia with the Earl of Essex in 1598, would be painted some years later by Van Dyke in Persian robes of embroidered silk that pictorially declared the subsequent character he achieved as an international diplomat with special Persian connections. Life itself, in the years when Shakespeare wrote, illustrated the malleability of personal being.