the branch of philosophy that studies the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe, especially such characteristics as space, time, causality, and freedom.
My paragraph on this view is Reza Aslan, the theatre of the investigating essays No study but God: The Materials, Evolution, and Future of Islam and most Moreover Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth.
Most scholars of Aristotle make no attempt to show that he is alignedwith any contemporary ideology. Rather, insofar as they find himrelevant to our times, it is because he offers a remarkable synthesisof idealism and realpolitik unfolding in deep and thought-provokingdiscussions of perennial concerns of political philosophy: the role ofhuman nature in politics, the relation of the individual to the state,the place of morality in politics, the theory of political justice,the rule of law, the analysis and evaluation of constitutions, therelevance of ideals to practical politics, the causes and cures ofpolitical change and revolution, and the importance of a morallyeducated citizenry.
These topics occupy the remainder of the Politics. BooksIV–VI are concerned with the existing constitutions: that is,the three deviant constitutions, as well as polity or the“mixed” constitution, which are the best attainable undermost circumstances (IV.2.1289a26–38). The mixed constitution hasbeen of special interest to scholars because it looks like aforerunner of modern republican regimes. The whole of book Vinvestigates the causes and prevention of revolution or politicalchange (metabolê). Books VII–VIII are devoted tothe ideal constitution. As might be expected, Aristotle's attempt tocarry out this program involves many difficulties, and scholarsdisagree about how the two series of books (IV–VI andVII–VIII) are related to each other: for example, which werewritten first, which were intended to be read first, and whether theyare ultimately consistent with each other. For a further discussion ofthis topic, see the following supplementary document:
Following Pope John Paul II's 1996 statement that the theory of evolution is more than just a hypothesis, newspapers around the world published articles wrongly asserting that the Church had finally come around and withdrawn its opposition to the theory.
This is not the place for a history of genetics, which has beenoffered many times elsewhere. The important point here is that geneticsbrought a new form of preformationism. Instead of a dynamically actingorganism taking its cues from the environmental conditions and from theway that cells interact with each cell division, the 20thcentury brought a dominant and popular view that has often emphasizedgenes as programmed to carry the information of heredity, which wasalso the information necessary to construct an individual. Of course,there have been calls for alternatives or interactionist models whereheredity and development, epigenesist and preformation, work together,but these have often been offered as alternatives than as centralinterpretations. [See, for example, Oyama 2000; Robert 2004.]
—panpsychist, —panpsychistic, the philosophical theory of Arthur Schopenhauer, who maintained that the ultimate reality of the universe is will.
—philosophist, a doctrine, related to logical positivism, that all meaningful statements, with the exception of necessary statements of logic and mathematics, must relate either directly or indirectly to observable properties of the temporal.
We know today that the Anglo-Saxon world of Americanism has resolved to annihilate Europe, that is, the homeland , and that means: the commencement of the Western world. Whatever has the character of commencement is indestructible. America's entry into this planetary war is not its entry into history; rather it is already the ultimate American act of American ahistoricality and self-devastation. For this act is the renunciation of commencement, and a decision in favor of that which is without commencement.
—Mohist, 1. the Leibnizian doctrine of monads as unextended, indivisible, and indestructible entities that are the ultimate constituent of the universe and a microcosm of it.
| Last Federal Troops of occupation left theSouth as "" came to an end
*--Philadelphia World's Fair (Centennial Exposition) on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of theAmerican Revolution
Nietzsche's fundamental experience is his growing insight into the basic development of our history. In his view it is nihilism. Nietzsche expresses incessantly and passionately the fundamental experience of his existence as a thinker. To the blind, to those who cannot see and above all do not want to see, his words easily sound overwrought, as though he were raving. And yet when we plumb the depths of his insight and consider how very closely the basic historical development of nihilism crowds and oppresses, then we may be inclined to call his manner of speech almost placid. One of the essential formulations that designate the event of nihilism says, "God is dead." The phrase "God is dead" is not an atheistic proclamation: it is a formula for the fundamental experience of an event in Occidental history.
| John Fiske, , influenced American religious thinkers on the question of the harmony of the Christian faith with the Darwinian concept of biological evolution and with its social corollary,
; German composer Richard Wagner createdtheatre () in Bayreuth, Bavaria, where annual music festivals allowed for the first time proper staging of his massive and revolutionary operas