Another argument that might be raised against the possibility of timetravel depends on the claim that Presentism is true. For if Presentism is true, then neither past nor future objects exist. And in that case, it is hard to see how anyone could travel to the past or the future.
4.) Two ads for similar products that were published (or broadcast) between 25–75 years apart. (Some research required.) Consider shifts in cultural attitudes toward gender, race, romance, politics, consumerism, “success” (whatever that means), . Your assertion should refer to the significant changes or shifts in appeal, effectiveness, audience, and so on.
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It looks as if the A Theorist must choose between two possible responses to the argument from relativity: (1) deny the theory of relativity, or (2) deny that the theory of relativity actually entails that there can be no such thing as absolute simultaneity. Option (1) has had its proponents (including Arthur Prior), but in general has not proven to be widely popular. This may be on account of the enormous respect philosophers typically have for leading theories in the empirical sciences. Option (2) seems like a promisingapproach for A Theorists, but A Theorists who opt for this line are faced with the task of giving some account of just what the theory ofrelativity does entail with respect to absolute simultaneity. (Perhaps it can be plausibly argued that while relativity entails that it is physically impossible to observe whether two events are absolutely simultaneous, the theory nevertheless has no bearing on whether there is such a phenomenon as absolute simultaneity.)
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Philosophers like McTaggart who claim that time is unreal are aware of the seemingly paradoxical nature of their claim. They generally take the line that all appearances suggesting that there is a temporal order to things are somehow illusory.
One response to this argument that McTaggart anticipates involves claiming that it's not true of any time, t, that t is both future and past. Rather, the objection goes, we must say thatt was future at some moment of past time and will be past atsome moment of future time. But this objection fails, according to McTaggart, because the additional times that are invoked in order to explain t's possession of the incompatible A properties mustthemselves possess all of the same A properties (as must any further times invoked on account of these additional times, and so on ad infinitum). Thus, according to McTaggart, we never resolve the original contradiction inherent in the A series, but, instead, merelygenerate an infinite regress of more and more contradictions.
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It's natural to think that time can be represented by a line. But a line has a shape. What shape should we give to the line that represents time? This is a question about the topology, or structure,of time.
The second of the two other influential arguments against The A Theory concerns the rate of the alleged passage of time. According tothis argument, if it is true to say that time really passes, then it makes sense to ask how fast time passes. But (the argument goes) if it makes sense to ask how fast time passes, then it is possible for there to be a coherent answer to that question. Yet, according to theargument, there is no rate that can be coherently assigned to the passage of time. (“One hour per hour,” for example, is said not to be a coherent answer to the question “How fast doestime pass?”) Thus, the argument concludes, it cannot be true tosay that time really passes.
What is this thought experiment supposed to show? Well, it can't be taken to show that global freezes are possible, because (at least theway the story has been told here) they are simply a stipulated detailof the story, and we can't show that something is possible merely by stipulating that it is the case in some possible world. What the thought experiment does seem to show, however, is that it is possiblefor rational beings to have at least some evidence for the existence of periods of empty time in their world. For we can describe the possible world of the thought experiment in a neutral way that specifies how things in the world appear to its denizens, without specifying whether the real freeze functions for Zones A, B, and C are the simpler ones described above that entail a global freeze every 30 years or the more complicated ones that do not have that entailment. And a possible world that appears this way to its inhabitants is surely a world in which those inhabitants have some reason to take seriously the possibility that there are periods of empty time in their world, that they know when those periods occur, and even that they know exactly how long the periods of empty time last.
2. Use brainstorming techniques to create outlines/freewriting/mapping; write preliminary drafts; develop thesis statement awareness to include multiple perspective possibilities; create thesis statements.