Most but not all bacteria have a capsule.
cell wall - A thin membrane located outside the plasma membrane and within the capsule.
DNA - The genetic material of the bacterium; it is located within the cytoplasm.
cytoplasm - The jellylike material inside the plasma membrane in which the genetic material and ribosomes are located.
flagellum - A long whip-like structure used for locomotion (movement).
Some bacteria have more than one flagellum.
pili - (singular is pilus) Hair-like projections that allow bacterial cells to stick to surfaces and transfer DNA to one another.
plasma membrane - A permeable membrane located within the cell wall.
Lectures 1 & 2: The Biosphere & Carbon and Energy pdfChemosynthesis (aerobic) Energy from the oxidation of inorganic molecules is used to reduce CO2 to organic carbon (bacteria only) e g sulfur oxidizingMicrobial Communities and Chemosynthesis in Jun 2011 Anaerobic chemosynthesis assays were beyond the capabilities of the field laboratory For practical reasons, most incubations were initiated inChemosynthesis in the deep-sea: life without the pdfDec 2012 that make use of aerobic chemosynthesis couple their reduction reaction to the anaerobic chemosynthesis have developed a more efficientGrowing Chemosynthetic Bacteria pdfStudents will grow and observe succession and chemosynthesis of bacterial sulfide, which has a distinct odor) that are created by the sulfur-oxidizing aerobicDifference between Photosynthesis and Chemosynthesis | Photosynthesis 1 Occurs only in green plants or chlorophyllated organisms 2 Sunlight or solar energy is essential 3 Involves pigment systems to trap solarChemosynthesis | Article about chemosynthesis Nitrifying bacteria oxidize ammonia to nitrite (first stage of nitrification) and nitrite to nitrate (second stage) Chemosynthesis occurs under anaerobic conditions in
Hydrogen is the third alternative energy source discovered in these communities. Until now, the bacterial symbionts were known to use only sulfur compounds and methane. (Symbionts are organisms that depend on each other for survival.)
A series of expeditions to the Logatchev hydrothermal vent field, 9,843 feet (3,000 meters) underwater on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, halfway between the Caribbean and the Cape Verde Islands, recorded the highest hydrogen concentrations ever measured at hydrothermal vents. 
Bacterial cells include the following:basal body - A structure that anchors the base of the flagellum and allows it to rotate.
capsule - A layer on the outside of the cell wall.
It serves many functions for the cell, including energy generation and transport of chemicals .
ribosomes - Small organelles composed of RNA-rich granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
Autotrophic bacteria make their own food, either by photosynthesis (which uses sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make food) or by chemosynthesis (which uses carbon dioxide, water and chemicals like ammonia to make food - these bacteria are called nitrogen fixers and include the bacteria found living in legume roots and in ocean vents).
Some bacteria are rod-shaped (these are called bacilli), some are round (called cocci, like streptococcus bacteria), and some are spiral-shaped (spirilli) or are incomplete spirals.
Some bacteria need atmospheric oxygen to live (these are called aerobic bacteria), but others do not (these are called anaerobic bacteria; they get their oxygen from other molecular compounds).
Another way to classify bacteria is by whether or not the bacteria absorbs a dye called "Gram stain" (a violet dye named for its developer, the bacteriologist Christian Gram).
Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria have a different type of cell wall, and therefore, a different reaction to the dye and to some other chemicals, including antibiotics (chemicals that can sometimes kill bacteria).
: Bacteria are found almost everywhere on Earth, including in the seas and lakes, on all continents (including Antarctica), in the , and in tissues of plants and animals.
: Under unfavorable environmental conditions, bacteria develop a thick outer wall and enter a dormant phase - in this resting state, the bacterium is called a spore.
: The cells of bacteria are different from those of plants and animals in many ways, the most obvious of which is that bacteria lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles (except ribosomes).