According to the stage at which these factors act (absorption, distribution, biotransformation or excretion of a particular chemical), the mechanisms can be roughly categorized according to two basic consequences of interaction: (1) a change in the quantity of the chemical in a target organ, that is, at the site(s) of its effect in the organism (toxicokinetic interactions), or (2) a change in the intensity of a specific response to the quantity of the chemical in a target organ (toxicodynamic interactions). The most common mechanisms of either type of interaction are related to competition with other chemical(s) for binding to the same compounds involved in their transport in the organism (e.g., specific serum proteins) and/or for the same biotransformation pathway (e.g., specific enzymes) resulting in a change in the speed or sequence between initial reaction and final adverse health effect. However, both toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic interactions may influence individual susceptibility to a particular chemical. The influence of several concomitant factors can result in either: (a) additive effectsthe intensity of the combined effect is equal to the sum of the effects produced by each factor separately, (b) synergistic effectsthe intensity of the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects produced by each factor separately, or (c) antagonistic effectsthe intensity of the combined effect is smaller than the sum of the effects produced by each factor separately.
Dietary habits have an important influence on susceptibility to chemical toxicity, mostly because adequate nutrition is essential for the functioning of the bodys chemical defence system in maintaining good health. Adequate intake of essential metals (including metalloids) and proteins, especially the sulphur-containing amino acids, is necessary for the biosynthesis of various detoxificating enzymes and the provision of glycine and glutathione for conjugation reactions with endogenous and exogenous compounds. Lipids, especially phospholipids, and lipotropes (methyl group donors) are necessary for the synthesis of biological membranes. Carbohydrates provide the energy required for various detoxification processes and provide glucuronic acid for conjugation of toxic chemicals and their metabolites. Selenium (an essential metalloid), glutathione, and vitamins such as vitamin C (water soluble), vitamin E and vitamin A (lipid soluble), have an important role as antioxidants (e.g., in controlling lipid peroxidation and maintaining integrity of cellular membranes) and free-radical scavengers for protection against toxic chemicals.
Genetic toxicology, by definition, is the study of how chemical or physical agents affect the intricate process of heredity. Genotoxic chemicals are defined as compounds that are capable of modifying the hereditary material of living cells. The probability that a particular chemical will cause genetic damage inevitably depends on several variables, including the organisms level of exposure to the chemical, the distribution and retention of the chemical once it enters the body, the efficiency of metabolic activation and/or detoxification systems in target tissues, and the reactivity of the chemical or its metabolites with critical macromolecules within cells. The probability that genetic damage will cause disease ultimately depends on the nature of the damage, the cells ability to repair or amplify genetic damage, the opportunity for expressing whatever alteration has been induced, and the ability of the body to recognize and suppress the multiplication of aberrant cells.
Although some chemicals react directly with DNA, most require metabolic activation. In the latter case, electrophilic intermediates such as epoxides or carbonium ions are ultimately responsible for inducing lesions at a variety of nucleophilic sites within the genetic material (). In other instances, genotoxicity is mediated by by-products of compound interaction with intracellular lipids, proteins, or oxygen.
Necrosis refers to the series of changes that occur following cell death when the cell is converted to debris which is typically removed by the inflammatory response. Two types can be distinguished: oncotic necrosis and apoptotic necrosis. Oncotic necrosis typically occurs in large zones, for example, in a myocardial infarct or regionally in an organ after chemical toxicity, such as the renal proximal tubule following administration of HgCl2. Broad zones of an organ are involved and the necrotic cells rapidly incite an inflammatory reaction, first acute and then chronic. In the event that the organism survives, in many organs necrosis is followed by clearing away of the dead cells and regeneration, for example, in the liver or kidney following chemical toxicity. In contrast, apoptotic necrosis typically occurs on a single cell basis and the necrotic debris is formed within the phagocytes of macrophages or adjacent parenchymal cells. The earliest characteristics of necrotic cells include interruptions in plasma membrane continuity and the appearance of flocculent densities, representing denatured proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. In some forms of injury that do not initially interfere with mitochondrial calcium accumulation, calcium phosphate deposits can be seen within the mitochondria. Other membrane systems are similarly fragmenting, such as the ER, the lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Ultimately, the nuclear chromatin undergoes lysis, resulting from attack by lysosomal hydrolases. Following cell death, lysosomal hydrolases play an important part in clearing away debris with cathepsins, nucleolases and lipases since these have an acid pH optimum and can survive the low pH of necrotic cells while other cellular enzymes are denatured and inactivated.
Will There Be A Cure For Diabetes Insulin Injections Levaquin Powerful Tendon Rupture Synthesis Of Aspirin Balanced Equation Phosphoric Acid Amoxicillin Susp Buy Macrodantin Drugs Paxil Sleep Disorders .
Glucuronidation is basically a chemical reaction performed by your liver during which a water-soluble substance is combined with a toxin, allowing the toxin to be more easily excreted from the body.
Normally the glucuronidation pathway of elimination works pretty well, unless the body is grossly overloaded with toxins, or unless some other chemical or even parasite or bacteria gets in the way.
Fasting and juice therapy revamp your health from the inside out.
Shirley Lipschutz-Robinson on Therapeutic Fasting & Internal Cleansing
Enzymes are the catalyst for the hundreds of thousands of chemical reactions that occur throughout the body; they are essential for the digestion and absoption of foods as well as for the production of cellular energy.
(you'd still need to accurately follow a healthy diet, lifestyle and supplement protocol.)
When I am having a TIA ischemic Stroke or Heart Attack caused by clots/blockage (not bleeding/hemorrhagic/burst blood vessel), instead of Warfarin, Coumadin or other “blood thinners”, I take:
Aspirin (5 grain) -- chew 1
Bromelain 500mg -- take 2 capsules
Ginkgo Biloba 60mg 24% - 2
Ginger Root 550mg -- 2
Cayenne 515mg 40,000 Heat Units -- 1 to 2
Alpha Lipoic Acid 100mg -- 2
Magnesium Citrate 500mg -- 1
Nattokinase 65mg -- 2
For prevention, each day I take:
Fish oil (molecularly-distilled) -- Swanson EFAs Super DHA 500 from Calamari, 1 capsule three times a day
GLA (Borage/Evening Primrose Oil) -- 2 capsules in AM, 3 in PM
Now brand Pancreatin enzymes -- 4 with meals, 6 between meals, 6 before bed
Now Brand Papaya & Bromelain enzymes -- 3 with meals, 3 between meals, 3 before bed
Serrapeptidase enzymes -- 3 between meals and 3 before bed
Actizyme enzymes -- 2 with each meal
I use cayenne, red pepper, fresh Jalapeno peppers liberally on my food
Ginkgo Biloba 60mg 24% -- 1 AM, 1 PM
Ginger Root 550mg – 1 AM, 2 PM
Alpha Lipoic Acid 100mg – 1 in AM, 1Lunch, 1 in PM
Magnesium Citrate (Now powder) - 325mgAM, 324mgPM
Nattokinase 65mg -- 2 AM, 2 PM
Some additional food and supplements I used for cancer were the following (Note: see link to Jerry Brunetti's protocol on this page and the information on my other cancer protocol pages, in addition to the information on this page.
(See my main cancer protocol and search for "Imagery/Visualization: HowTo" without the quotes).
For more info, see:
For Vitamin D3 dosage information, don't forget to also take K2, and search this page (or ) for:
Taking vitamin D is vital if you want to avoid diabetes
How much vitamin D do you need to avoid diabetes, infections (flu, etc.) and cancer?
You Can Treat Bronchial Infections With Horseradish
We're halfway through February, and for many of you living far away from the Equator, it means you're still dealing with the pesky and prevalent cold and flu season.
Normally this means that no one's lungs or sinuses are safe for long.
It can cause allergic reactions, skin irritations, and even liver abnormalities and kidney damage.
•Sodium Laurel Sulfate – Used for its foaming abilities, this highly toxic substance penetrates your skin’s moisture barrier, which lets other dangerous chemicals in to do an untold amount of damage.