8.5.1 Benzoic acid Benzoic acid tested negative in several Ames tests and in one DNA damage assay with different Salmonella typhimurium strains in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (McCann et al., 1975; Ishidate et al., 1984; Nakamura et al., 1987; Zeiger et al., 1988).
8.4.3 Carcinogenicity of benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde As benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde are practically quantitatively metabolized via benzoic acid (see section 7.1), data on their carcinogenicity from 2-year studies may be used as supportive evidence in the assessment of the hazards associated with benzoic acid.
There were no data available on the emission of benzoic acid from the disposal of antifreeze mixtures and waterborne cooling systems and other miscellaneous industrial uses.
ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, TRANSFORMATION, AND ACCUMULATION 5.1.1 Benzoic acid From its use pattern (see section 4), it can be expected that benzoic acid is released to surface waters and (from dumping sites) to leaching water (and groundwater).
Other anthropogenic releases of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate into the environment are emissions into water and soil from their uses as preservatives in food, toothpastes, mouthwashes, dentifrices, and cosmetics.
From its physicochemical properties (vapour pressure, Henry's law constant; see section 2), a significant volatilization of benzoic acid from water or soil is not expected.
From data provided by the German producers, emissions of benzoic acid from industrial processes were less than 525 kg per year into the atmosphere, less than 3 tonnes per year into the River Rhine, and 8 tonnes per year into sewage or water purification plants (BUA, 1995).
Owing to its use pattern, which is similar to that of benzoic acid, most of the amounts released to the environment are also expected to be emitted to aquatic compartments (e.g., surface waters).
In , Taiwan, a city health survey in 2010 found that 30% of dried and pickled food products had too much benzoic acid, which may affect the liver and kidney, along with more serious issues like excessive .
However, benzoic acid adsorbed on silica gel (SiO2) and irradiated with UV light (lambda > 290 nm) for 17 h showed 10.2% photodegradation (Freitag et al., 1985).
For humans, the 's (IPCS) suggests a provisional tolerable intake would be 5 mg/kg body weight per day. have a significantly lower tolerance against benzoic acid and its than and . Lethal dose for cats can be as low as 300 mg/kg body weight. The oral for rats is 3040 mg/kg, for mice it is 1940–2263 mg/kg.
Hydroxyl radical rate constants (kOH) for benzoic acid and its anion have been estimated to be approximately 0.5 × 10-12 and 2 × 10-12 cm3/s, respectively (Palm et al., 1998).
301C) Zahn-Wellens >90% (508 mg/litre; (Zahn & Wellens, test 2 days) 1980) Easy degradation of benzoic acid to methane and carbon dioxide was also observed in different non-standardized experiments using sewage sludge as inoculum (BUA, 1995).
Possibly the largest use of sodium benzoate, accounting for 30-35% of the total demand (about 15 000 tonnes of benzoic acid), is as an anticorrosive, particularly as an additive to automotive engine antifreeze coolants and in other waterborne systems (Scholz & Kortmann, 1991; Srour, 1998).
Benzoic acid was found to be degraded by adapted anaerobic sewage sludge at 86-93% after 14 days (Nottingham & Hungate, 1969), by aerobic activated sludge (adapted) at >95% after 5-20 days (Pitter, 1976; Lund & Rodriguez, 1984), and by unadapted aerobic activated sludge at 61-69% after 2-3 days with a preceding lag time of 2-20 h (Urano & Kato, 1986).