Novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate, is not involved in floral scent production in snapdragon flowers.
Purification and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of the volatile ester methyl benzoate in flowers of Antirrhinum majus.
Debido a que el propio ácido benzoico es sólo ligeramente soluble en agua, con frecuencia se utiliza en su lugar el benzoato de sodio, que en condiciones ácidas se convierte en ácido benzoico no disociado.
El presente CICAD sobre el ácido benzoico y el benzoato de sodio se preparó en el Instituto Fraunhofer de Toxicología y de Investigación sobre los Aerosoles de Hannover, Alemania.
Dans le cas du benzoate de sodium, il y a inhibition de la croissance bactérienne et fongique pour des concentrations comprises entre 100 et 60 000 mg/litre et cette inhibition dépend du pH.
This CICAD was based on reviews compiled by the German Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA, 1995), the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA, 1972a), and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (WHO, 1996) to assess potential effects of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate on the environment and on humans.
Benzyl acetate was rapidly hydrolysed to benzyl alcohol , with a peak alcohol concentration after 4 min. The absence of benzyl acetate in plasma indicates that benzyl acetate is rapidly hydrolysed to benzyl alcohol, which is then rapidly oxidized to benzoic acid (Yuan et al., 1995). ,90% of benzyl phenylacetate was hydrolysed within 1 h and 100% within 2 h of incubation with a 2% pancreatin solution (Leegwater & van Straten, 1974).
The pathways of aromatics degradation in the Fe(III)-reducing, obligate anaerobe G. metallireducens appear to be similar to those from nitrate-reducing organisms that use more favorable electron acceptors. The genes are more closely related to those that have been studied in the nitrate-reducing beta Proteobacteria than to the nitrate-reducing or photosynthetic alpha Proteobacteria species. Toluene, phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate are all predicted to be channeled to the central intermediate benzoyl-CoA. De-aromatized products are predicted to be oxidized to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA.
However, there is one notable exception to this similarity. The reaction which has been shown to be the most energetically expensive in nitrate-reducing organisms, and which has been hypothesized to be different in obligate anaerobes, must be different in G. metallireducens. The completion of the genome sequence proves that G. metallireducens encodes no classical benzoyl-CoA reductase, the ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of the aromatic bonds in benzoyl-CoA. Phylogenetic analysis, subunit content, and expression studies contradict the previous report that a benzoyl-CoA reductase was present in G. metallireducens, and support the previous report that no benzoyl-CoA reductase activity was found in G. metallireducens metabolizing benzoate.
Several experiments were conducted to study the metabolism of esters of -hydroxybenzoic acid after oral (1000 mg/kg bw) or intravenous (50 mg/kg bw) administration to dogs. The esters were absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and rapidly hydrolysed by esterases in the liver and kidney. In the case of butyl -hydroxybenzoate (No. 870), 48% was recovered after oral and 40% after intravenous administration. Liver preparations from dogs injected with 100 mg/kg bw of the methyl, ethyl, or propyl ester showed 100% hydrolysis within 3 min. In the case of the butyl ester, 100% hydrolysis occurred within 30–60 min (Jones et al., 1956).
The International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC 0103) for benzoic acid, produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS, 1993), has also been reproduced in this document (Appendix 4).
Benzyl acetate, its hydrolysis product, benzyl alcohol, and the oxidation product of this alcohol, benzaldehyde, are extensively metabolized to benzoic acid in experimental animals and humans.