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View Nucleotide Biosynthesis from BIO 98 at UC Irvine

N2 - Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancers, and the mechanisms underlying melanoma invasive phenotype are not completely understood. Here, we report that expression of guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR), an enzyme involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, was downregulated in the invasive stages of human melanoma. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments revealed that GMPR downregulates the amounts of several GTP-bound (active) Rho-GTPases and suppresses the ability of melanoma cells to form invadopodia, degrade extracellular matrix, invade invitro, and grow as tumor xenografts invivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that GMPR partially depletes intracellular GTP pools. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo GTP biosynthesis suppressed whereas addition of exogenous guanosine increased invasion of melanoma cells as well as cells from other cancer types. Our data identify GMPR as a melanoma invasion suppressor and establish a link between guanosine metabolism and Rho-GTPase-dependent melanoma cell invasion

AB - Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancers, and the mechanisms underlying melanoma invasive phenotype are not completely understood. Here, we report that expression of guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR), an enzyme involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, was downregulated in the invasive stages of human melanoma. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments revealed that GMPR downregulates the amounts of several GTP-bound (active) Rho-GTPases and suppresses the ability of melanoma cells to form invadopodia, degrade extracellular matrix, invade invitro, and grow as tumor xenografts invivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that GMPR partially depletes intracellular GTP pools. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo GTP biosynthesis suppressed whereas addition of exogenous guanosine increased invasion of melanoma cells as well as cells from other cancer types. Our data identify GMPR as a melanoma invasion suppressor and establish a link between guanosine metabolism and Rho-GTPase-dependent melanoma cell invasion

T1 - Nucleotide biosynthesis is critical for growth of bacteria in human blood

formed in nucleotide biosynthesis.

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancers, and the mechanisms underlying melanoma invasive phenotype are not completely understood. Here, we report that expression of guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR), an enzyme involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, was downregulated in the invasive stages of human melanoma. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments revealed that GMPR downregulates the amounts of several GTP-bound (active) Rho-GTPases and suppresses the ability of melanoma cells to form invadopodia, degrade extracellular matrix, invade invitro, and grow as tumor xenografts invivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that GMPR partially depletes intracellular GTP pools. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo GTP biosynthesis suppressed whereas addition of exogenous guanosine increased invasion of melanoma cells as well as cells from other cancer types. Our data identify GMPR as a melanoma invasion suppressor and establish a link between guanosine metabolism and Rho-GTPase-dependent melanoma cell invasion

Proliferation of bacterial pathogens in blood represents one of the most dangerous stages of infection. Growth in blood serum depends on the ability of a pathogen to adjust metabolism to match the availability of nutrients. Although certain nutrients are scarce in blood and need to be de novo synthesized by proliferating bacteria, it is unclear which metabolic pathways are critical for bacterial growth in blood. In this study, we identified metabolic functions that are essential specifically for bacterial growth in the bloodstream. We used two principally different but complementing techniques to comprehensively identify genes that are required for the growth of Escherichia coli in human serum. A microarray-based and a dye-based mutant screening approach were independently used to screen a library of 3,985 single-gene deletion mutants in all non-essential genes of E. coli (Keio collection). A majority of the mutants identified consistently by both approaches carried a deletion of a gene involved in either the purine or pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway and showed a 20- to 1,000-fold drop in viable cell counts as compared to wild-type E. coli after 24 h of growth in human serum. This suggests that the scarcity of nucleotide precursors, but not other nutrients, is the key limitation for bacterial growth in serum. Inactivation of nucleotide biosynthesis genes in another Gram-negative pathogen, Salmonella enterica, and in the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis, prevented their growth in human serum. The growth of the mutants could be rescued by genetic complementation or by addition of appropriate nucleotide bases to human serum. Furthermore, the virulence of the B. anthracis purE mutant, defective in purine biosynthesis, was dramatically attenuated in a murine model of bacteremia. Our data indicate that de novo nucleotide biosynthesis represents the single most critical metabolic function for bacterial growth in blood and reveal the corresponding enzymes as putative antibiotic targets for the treatment of bloodstream infections.

MetaCyc Nucleosides and Nucleotides Biosynthesis

N2 - Proliferation of bacterial pathogens in blood represents one of the most dangerous stages of infection. Growth in blood serum depends on the ability of a pathogen to adjust metabolism to match the availability of nutrients. Although certain nutrients are scarce in blood and need to be de novo synthesized by proliferating bacteria, it is unclear which metabolic pathways are critical for bacterial growth in blood. In this study, we identified metabolic functions that are essential specifically for bacterial growth in the bloodstream. We used two principally different but complementing techniques to comprehensively identify genes that are required for the growth of Escherichia coli in human serum. A microarray-based and a dye-based mutant screening approach were independently used to screen a library of 3,985 single-gene deletion mutants in all non-essential genes of E. coli (Keio collection). A majority of the mutants identified consistently by both approaches carried a deletion of a gene involved in either the purine or pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway and showed a 20- to 1,000-fold drop in viable cell counts as compared to wild-type E. coli after 24 h of growth in human serum. This suggests that the scarcity of nucleotide precursors, but not other nutrients, is the key limitation for bacterial growth in serum. Inactivation of nucleotide biosynthesis genes in another Gram-negative pathogen, Salmonella enterica, and in the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis, prevented their growth in human serum. The growth of the mutants could be rescued by genetic complementation or by addition of appropriate nucleotide bases to human serum. Furthermore, the virulence of the B. anthracis purE mutant, defective in purine biosynthesis, was dramatically attenuated in a murine model of bacteremia. Our data indicate that de novo nucleotide biosynthesis represents the single most critical metabolic function for bacterial growth in blood and reveal the corresponding enzymes as putative antibiotic targets for the treatment of bloodstream infections.

In eukaryotes, glycosylation occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Nucleotide sugars required for glycosylation are imported into the lumen of these organelles by a family of intracellular NSTs. But how NSTs recognize and transport nucleotide sugars has been unclear.

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Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Biosynthesis


Nucleotide Metabolism: Nucleic Acid Synthesis

AB - Proliferation of bacterial pathogens in blood represents one of the most dangerous stages of infection. Growth in blood serum depends on the ability of a pathogen to adjust metabolism to match the availability of nutrients. Although certain nutrients are scarce in blood and need to be de novo synthesized by proliferating bacteria, it is unclear which metabolic pathways are critical for bacterial growth in blood. In this study, we identified metabolic functions that are essential specifically for bacterial growth in the bloodstream. We used two principally different but complementing techniques to comprehensively identify genes that are required for the growth of Escherichia coli in human serum. A microarray-based and a dye-based mutant screening approach were independently used to screen a library of 3,985 single-gene deletion mutants in all non-essential genes of E. coli (Keio collection). A majority of the mutants identified consistently by both approaches carried a deletion of a gene involved in either the purine or pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway and showed a 20- to 1,000-fold drop in viable cell counts as compared to wild-type E. coli after 24 h of growth in human serum. This suggests that the scarcity of nucleotide precursors, but not other nutrients, is the key limitation for bacterial growth in serum. Inactivation of nucleotide biosynthesis genes in another Gram-negative pathogen, Salmonella enterica, and in the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis, prevented their growth in human serum. The growth of the mutants could be rescued by genetic complementation or by addition of appropriate nucleotide bases to human serum. Furthermore, the virulence of the B. anthracis purE mutant, defective in purine biosynthesis, was dramatically attenuated in a murine model of bacteremia. Our data indicate that de novo nucleotide biosynthesis represents the single most critical metabolic function for bacterial growth in blood and reveal the corresponding enzymes as putative antibiotic targets for the treatment of bloodstream infections.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford

As an example of the factors involved, consider the fluorinated pyrimidines, 5-fluorouracil (FUra) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), analogues used for four decades in treating various cancers. It was established in 1958 (9) that these drugs are converted in vivo to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP), an analogue of deoxyuridine monophosphate, the substrate for thymidylate synthase (Fig. 1; see Deoxyribonucleotide Biosynthesis And Degradation), and that FdUMP is a potent inhibitor of thymidylate synthase and, hence of DNA replication. Figure 1 shows also the metabolic pathways that both activate these analogues and divert them from their desired endpoint (10). From the figure, one can see that coadministration with FdUrd of a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor should increase the effectiveness of the analogue by blocking its catabolism. Note that there are multiple routes for activation of FUra; note also that FUra can enter pools of RNA precursors which, in principle, could limit its selectivity by diminishing the specificity of its effect against DNA synthesis. There is evidence, however, that, in some tumors, the effectiveness of FUra actually depends in part on its incorporation into RNA, where it stimulates translational miscoding.

Research, teaching, units, external links.

Metabolism1.0 Global and overview maps1.1 Carbohydrate metabolism1.2 Energy metabolism1.3 Lipid metabolism1.4 Nucleotide metabolism1.5 Amino acid metabolism1.6 Metabolism of other amino acids1.7 Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism1.8 Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins1.9 Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides1.10 Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites1.11 Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism1.12 Chemical structure transformation maps

KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways - Reference …

Most nucleotide biosynthesis in most cells occurs via the nearly ubiquitous de novo synthetic pathways, starting from amino acids and their derivatives (see Purine Ribonucleotide Metabolism and Pyrimidine Ribonucleotide Metabolism). However, most cells possess capabilities for taking up nucleosides and nucleobases and converting them to nucleotides. Because these processes involve reutilization of previously synthesized purine and pyrimidine rings, they are called salvage pathways. These pathways are much shorter and simpler than the de novo pathways. On the other hand, there is much more variability from organism to organism, and from tissue to tissue in the same organism, in salvage synthetic capabilities. The metabolic importance of salvage pathways has come to light, first, along with the realization of the serious consequences of hereditary deficiencies in certain salvage enzymes and, second, with the many ways in which salvage pathways are being exploited to create or enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy against a variety of diseases.

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