188.8.131.52 Signs of intoxication The acute toxicity of 1-butanol (Table 5) is moderate in several animal species, and is mainly associated with effects on the CNS.
At the highest dose level, the difference between levels in inspired and expired air indicated an uptake of 47% 1-butanol at rest, and 37, 40, and 41% at 50, 100, and 150 w, respectively.
The production of sorbitol and gluconic acid increased too, because a higher fructose level was provided as a consequence of Fructozyme L action, as well as different uptake rates for glucose un fructose, and a competition for fructose utilization between the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the gluconic acid- and sorbitol - producing enzyme glucose-fructose oxidoreductase.
Augustus has invested in modern, well equipped laboratories to provide unparalleled control of quality, and a development environment that continues to produce innovative ranges of natural ingredients.
Continuous investments and a professionalism aimed at achieving the highest levels of performance in service and quality, along with that same dedication, passion, love, and experience, have together enabled us to reach the absolute avant-garde level that characterizes Moellhausen today, recognized worldwide for its modernity, innovation, creativity, and respect for the environment and the safety and rights of those who work with us.
The generation of electricity from surplus bagasse is undoubtedlythe easiest and best utilization of this byproduct for mostcane-producing Third World countries. However, as local conditionsvary extensively the possibility of utilizing surplus bagasse toproduce particle board, paper, furfural, or methane will be brieflyconsidered.
The more straightforward solution is to produce electricity fromthe bagasse saved via a high pressure boiler and condensingturbo-alternator. This solution has found favour in a number of caneproducing countries such a Hawaii, Australia, Reunion and Mauritiusand with modern equipment some 450 kWh can now be produced per tonneof mill-run bagasse. A typical example of this use is given in Table1 and if mill-run bagasse is priced at US$ 15 per tonne, electricitycan be generated on a year round basis, at a cost of approximately UScents 6 to 8 per kWh, which should prove competitive with the rulingprice of electricity in most Third World countries.
As an example, molasses can simply be exported as such and earnsome US$ 25 to 30 per tonne. However, by transforming the molassesinto citric acid (worth say US$ 1 600 per tonne) about 330 kg ofcitric acid worth US$ 528 would be obtained from one tonne ofmolasses, i.e. about 18 times more than the previous operation. Wemust point out however that it is generally much easier to find amarket for 30 000 tonnes of citric acid (worth US$ 750 000) than it is tofind a buyer for 10 000 tonnes of citric acid (worth US$ 16 000 000).The market price of the byproducts of the sugarcane industry variesfrom country to country with cyclical increases and decreases.
The production of pulp and paper from bagasse is not advisable asthe main use of byproducts by Third World countries, unless veryfavourable local conditions exist. It is a relatively demandingtechnology best approached after gaining experience with simplerbagasse processing as called for in electricity generation or particleboard manufacture.
In man, 1-butanol, in the liquid or vapour phase, can cause moderate skin irritation and severe eye irritation manifested as a burning sensation, lachrymation, blurring of vision, and photophobia.
In a study on rabbits, it was stated that aliphatic alcohols appeared to be metabolized and eliminated from the body by: (a) oxidation and elimination of the products (acids, aldehydes, ketones, and carbon dioxide) in the urine and expired air; (b) conjugation as glucuronide or sulfate and elimination of the products in the urine; and (c) elimination of the unchanged alcohol in the expired air or urine.
The effects of a moderate non-toxic oral dose of 2-butanol (0.0163 mol/kg body weight) was studied in rats using a simple functional test by Wallgren (1960).
It has also been detected by gas chromatographic methods in waste gases obtained during the boiling and drying of oil (Novokonskaya et al., 1978), and it is released from polyvinyl chloride linoleum plasticized with poly(dibutyl maleate) (Moshlakova et al., 1976) and from hardened parquet lacquer (Dmitriev & Michahikin, 1979).