Time-dependent ESI-MS data revealed that the geometry and the properties of both the leaving and the nonleaving groups of platinum(II) complexes play essential roles in controlling the reactivity and formation of the final products with hCtr1-N20.
Although many of the sites have been modified with success, the relative paucity of functional group availability within proteinogenic amino acids can sometimes leave open questions about specific functions of the metal binding ligands.
The mycelium of P. ostreatus was cultured, in vitro, on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and was used for production of AgNPs. For liquid culture, freshly cultivated mycelium from solid substrate was inoculated in 50 ml potato dextrose broth in 250 ml flasks and agitated at 28°C in dark. The biomass was harvested after 72 hours of growth. The biomass was washed with sterilized distilled water to remove medium component Ray, et al. (2011). Then, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the biomass was carried out.
Albumin could coordinate with metal ions and form QDs, but not all the formed inorganic nanoparticles are fluorescent. Some inorganic nanoparticles are non-fluorescent but possess other attractive properties for biomedical applications. The albumin-templated non-fluorescent inorganic nanoparticles might be used for MRI, photoacoustics, photothermal conversion, or their combinations . Further modifications on the surface of albumin could endow the nanoparticle with more functions and result in multifunctional nanoparticles for multi-modal imaging, combinational therapy and theranostics .
In the last few decades, there has been increased interest in reducing the availability of commercial textile containing antibacterial agents due to environmental pollution. Since silver is a good antibacterial agent and non-toxic and natural inorganic metal, it appears as an interesting material to be used in different kind of textile fibers. In this direction, polypropylene/silver nano-composite fibers were prepared and the antibacterial tests showed that the fibers containing silver nanoparticles in core-part (inside the fiber) had no nearly significant antibacterial activity. However, the fibers having silver nanoparticles (30 nm size) in sheath-part showed excellent antibacterial effects (Y eo, et al., 2003 and Y eo & Jeong, 2003). Textile fabrics with antibacterial efficacy were easily achieved using nanosized colloidal silver particles (2–5 nm size), by padding process on cotton and polyesters. These fabrics showed laundering durability against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae (Lee, et al., 2003). Similar results were achieved by Lee & Jeong (2004) with nanosized colloidal AgNPs on polyester nonwovens. The growth of bacteria colonies was absolutely inhibited with only 10 ppm colloidal silver when the mean diameter of the silver particles was 2–5 nm. Consequently, a smaller particle size yielded better bacteriostasis on silver-padded nonwoven fabrics. Silver nanoparticles can be coated onto polyurethane foams in diverse forms. This material can be washed several times without any loss of nanoparticles.
By taking advantage of the strengths in both fields, the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have been modulated by the target recognition and catalytic activity of functional DNAs in the presence of a target analyte, resulting in a large number of colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and magnetic resonance imaging sensors for the detection of a broad range of analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity.
Methods of integrating these aptamers with a variety of nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, each with unique optical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties, are reviewed.
33. Zhou J, Yang Y, Zhang C-y. Toward Biocompatible Semiconductor Quantum Dots: From Biosynthesis and Bioconjugation to Biomedical Application. 2015;115:11669-717
The results strongly support the coupled distortion model that helps explain axial ligand tuning of spectroscopic properties in cupredoxins, and demonstrate the power of using unnatural amino acids to address critical chemical biological questions.
In particular, the use of metallic nanoparticles as the color reporting groups for the action (binding, catalysis, or both) of aptamers, DNAzymes, and aptazymes is described in detail.
* Techniques are available that allow the incorporation of unnatural moieties, such as unnatural amino acids, backbone linkages or cofactors, into proteins.
Design of artificial proteins containing unnatural amino acids, backbone linkages or cofactors have also been reported, making it possible to prepare proteins with structural and functional properties beyond those of native proteins.
Because metallic nanoparticles possess high extinction coefficients and distance-dependent optical properties, they allow highly sensitive detections with minimal consumption of materials.
Albumin-stabilized cationic gelatin (C-gel) nanoparticle could be loaded with DOX/DNA intercalation complex . The prepared nanoparticle was responsive to pH and tumor-specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). When the C-gel was digested by the MMPs, the loaded DOX/DNA intercalation was released and further digested by deoxyribonucleases to release DOX completely. experiments demonstrated that the designed drug delivery system with significantly low cardiotoxicity was more powerful than free DOX in terms of cancer treatment.
Example applications in DNA-directed nanoparticle assembly and DNA aptamer-based biosensing illustrate two representative uses of the patterns that can be formed.