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Homoserine (threonineand methionine)

During coronary artery occlusion the number of animals having episodes of VT or VF was significantly diminished by the sunflower oil and fish oil diets.

A. ferrooxidans has two glutamyl-tRNA synthetases: a more discriminating one (D-GluRS, AFE0422) that charges only Glu-tRNA(Glu) and a less discriminating one (ND-GluRS, AFE2222) that charges Glu-tRNA(Glu) and Glu-tRNA(Gln). The latter one is a required intermediate in protein synthesis in many organisms []. An indirect regulation of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase by heme status suggests a potential metabolic connection between heme requirements, nitrogen, and central carbon metabolism [].

Patients were treated either with a combination of oral magnesium and potassium, or with a placebo.

Interaction between the actions of taurine and angiotensin II.

The influence of age and dietary fat in an animal model of sudden cardiac death.

(In contrast, the antiarrhythmic effects of various forms of garlic, as described later in this report, were only partially abolished by aspirin.)

Hock et al in 1990 reported on the influence of omega 3 fatty acids on myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

Both the incidence and severity of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation were significantly reduced during the ischemic and reperfusion periods with fish oil feeding.

Chapter 21 : Biosynthesis of Amino Acids, Nucleotides, …

Elimination of all the favorable effects of PUFAs by cyclooxygenase inhibition indicates the prostaglandin system plays an essential role in the protection offered by PUFAs from ventricular arrhythmias.

The clinical and hemodynamic effects of coenzyme Q in congestive cardiomyopathy.

In some bacteria, when basic protection is not sufficient, e.g., when sudden large increases in ROS occur, rapid global responses are induced to cope with the oxidative stress []. Often survival during the period of stress is aided by the simultaneous employment of multiple strategies. The strategies predicted to be available to A. ferrooxidans include repair of oxidative damage (e.g., nfo), bypassing of damaged functions (e.g., resistant isozymes acnA, fumC), and the exclusion of oxidative stress agents (e.g., acrAB multidrug efflux pump). Typically, many of these functions are coordinately regulated in response to superoxide by the SoxRS two-component regulator, and in response to peroxide by OxyR in Gram-negative bacteria or by PerR in Gram-positive bacteria. A. ferrooxidans lacks oxyR, soxR, and soxS orthologs, but has a Fur family regulator similar to PerR (AFE1467). The role of PerR in the control of A. ferrooxidans inducible stress response has not been investigated, but could include regulation of the divergently-transcribed AhpC family peroxidase (AFE1468). This arrangement is conserved in other microorganisms [].

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The specific features of methionine biosynthesis and ..

(homoserine and lysine) Homoserine (threonine and methionine) ..

For aerobically growing bacteria, the autooxidation of oxidases in the respiratory chain is the main source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased levels of ROS can also result from exposure to redox active metals, including iron. Aerobic biomining microorganisms such as A. ferrooxidans that thrive in iron-rich environments are thus expected to be well equipped to deal with disturbances in oxidant-antiooxidant balance. Surprisingly, an unexpectedly low number of genes encoding known ROS detoxification functions were identified in the genome. These genes include a Mn-superoxide dismutase encoded by sodA (AFE1898), two non-identical copies of ahpC-like (AFE1468, AFE0985) and ahpD-like (AFE02014, AFE1814) members of the alkylhydroperoxidase family, and nox, (AFE1803) potentially encoding a NADH oxidase (FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family protein). This latter is considered to be important in oxygen scavenging in anaerobes because of its potential to reduce oxygen to water []. No genes coding for known catalases were detected.

Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism - Reference pathway

On the other hand, A. ferrooxidans is predicted to have a complete set of components needed for non-enzymatic neutralization of ROS. This mechanism maintains high levels of low molecular weight thiols in the cytoplasm that, in combination with specific disulfide reductases, provide a reducing intracellular environment and maintain the thiol/disulfide balance of other molecules (unpublished results). Seven distinct thioredoxins (txr; AFE2867, AFE2848, AFE2590, AFE2362, AFE1979, AFE0657, AFE0047) and one thioredoxin disulfide reductase (trxB, AFE0375) are present. Also present are the genes of the glutathione system necessary for glutathione-tripeptide synthesis from the amino acids L-cysteine, L-glutamate, and glycine (gshA, AFE03064; gshB, AFE03063), four distinct glutaredoxins (gxr; AFE3038, AFE2449, AFE2263, AFE0367), and the glutathione reductase gorA (AFE0366).

Regulation of Lysine and Threonine Metabolism in …

A. ferrooxidans may also be resistant to some antibiotics due to the presence of a two-gene cluster (AFE1977-78) potentially encoding a fosfomidocyn resistance protein and a TonB-family protein, respectively, and also a gene potentially encoding an AmpG permease protein (AFE1961).

Regulation of aspartate family amino acid biosynthesis …

The genome also includes a predicted complete ABC gene cluster (AFE0158-63) involved in drug extrusion that has significant similarity to the toluene ABC resistance proteins reported in other organisms. Resistance to toluene/xylene and related aromatic hydrocarbons and organic solvents may be needed by A. ferrooxidans when growing in runoff from coal wastes where it might encounter aromatic hydrocarbons [] or in bioleaching operation heaps that are irrigated with recycled water containing carboxylic acids and other organic compounds from solvent extraction operations [].

Inhibition by amino acids of the enzymes in threonine biosynthesis

The ability to extrude toxic organic compounds is widespread, and our inspection of the A. ferrooxidans genome suggests that this bacterium is well equipped to deal with toxic organic molecules. Its genome contains a gene predicted to encode the toluene tolerance protein TtgD (AFE1830) as well as a cluster of proteins often associated with toluene resistance that includes a Tol-Pal-associated acyl-CoA thioesterase (AFE0063) and TolBARQ (AFE0064-67).

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