Brassinosteroids (BRs) are specific phytosteroids necessary for ordinary plant growth and development. BRs share similar chemical structures with animal steroidal hormones, but show a distinctive signal perception mechanism. The importance of BRs is illustrated by the typical phenotypes of mutants with lesions in key biosynthetic or signalling proteins. These mutants show severe dwarfism, curled and round leaves, considerably delayed senescence, reduced male fertility, altered light‐regulated developmental programs, changed responses to abiotic and biotic stresses and modified gene expression profiles. Extensive studies in the last four decades have resulted in a comprehensive picture of BRs, from their nearly completed biosynthesis and physiological functions to their mechanisms of action.
Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, et al. (2001) Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis. Plant Journal 26: 573–582.
Sekimata K, Ohnishi T, Mizutani M, et al. (2008) Brz220 interacts with DWF4, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in brassinosteroid biosynthesis, and exerts biological activity. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 72: 7–12.
Kim GT, Fujioka S, Kozuka T, et al. (2005) CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 are involved in different steps in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal 41: 710–721.
Shimada Y, Goda H, Nakamura A, et al. (2003) Organ‐specific expression of brassinosteroid‐biosynthetic genes and distribution of endogenous brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 131: 287–297.
Algae represent a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aquatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. This symposium will have 6 presentations from scholars in several important areas of algal studies. Topics such as the phylogeny, diversification, and ecological aspects of diatoms, whole genome and proteome study of a filamentous cyanobacterium, the biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation of secondary metabolites and environmental aspects of water blooms will be discussed.
Wang ZY, Nakano T, Gendron J, et al. (2002) Nuclear‐localized BZR1 mediates brassinosteroid‐induced growth and feedback suppression of brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Developmental Cell 2: 505–513.
Shimada Y, Fujioka S, Miyauchi N, et al. (2001) Brassinosteroid‐6‐oxidases from arabidopsis and tomato catalyze multiple C‐6 oxidations in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Plant Physiology 126: 770–779.
Ohnishi T, Szatmari AM, Watanabe B, et al. (2006) C‐23 hydroxylation by Arabidopsis CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 reveals a novel shortcut in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 18: 3275–3288.
Hong Z, Ueguchi‐Tanaka M, Shimizu‐Sato S, et al. (2002) Loss‐of‐function of a rice brassinosteroid biosynthetic enzyme, C‐6 oxidase, prevents the organized arrangement and polar elongation of cells in the leaves and stem. Plant Journal 32: 495–508.
Fujioka S, Takatsuto S and Yoshida S (2002) An early C‐22 oxidation branch in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway. Plant Physiology 130: 930–939.
Metabolism1.0 Global and overview maps1.1 Carbohydrate metabolism1.2 Energy metabolism1.3 Lipid metabolism1.4 Nucleotide metabolism1.5 Amino acid metabolism1.6 Metabolism of other amino acids1.7 Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism1.8 Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins1.9 Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides1.10 Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites1.11 Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism1.12 Chemical structure transformation maps