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In the photosynthesis and initial carbon fixation occur at night and a 4-carbon acid is stored in the cell's vacuole. During the day, the Calvin cycle operates in the same chloroplasts.
The C3 carbon reduction cycle is the primary pathway of carbon fixation in all photosynthetic organisms, reducing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to form carbohydrates, and in higher plants, it takes place in the chloroplast stroma. The carboxylation, reduction and regeneration phases of the Calvin–Benson cycle require several enzymes whose properties have been the focus of intense study. The intermediates of the Calvin–Benson cycle serve as links with several other pathways, and photosynthetically fixed carbon is exchanged among the pathways. Control of Rubisco involves several regulation mechanisms, and some are similar to those of other enzymes of the Calvin–Benson pathway, such as thioredoxin redox control as well as multiprotein complexes. All of these enzymes and control mechanisms, as well as plant canopy structure, are being studied with the aim of improving photosynthesis for increased plant production to feed a growing population.
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Later in the 1950’s Melvin Calvin researched photosynthesis using euglena and other organisms and
discovered the Calvin Benson Cycle which captures carbon dioxide through photosynthesis.
Melvin Calvin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this discovery.
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