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optimal foraging, and the delay-reduction hypothesis.

...the contingency model by a number of authors in terms of net energy gain per time spent in a bout of foraging (for reviews see Schoener, 1971, 1987) and was expanded formally to include patch choice (=-=Schoener, 1974-=-). As with tests of the matching law and delay reduction, most empirical tests of the MacArthur and Pianka (1966) model have been done in open laboratory economies, that is, with deprived animals choo...

...sion of the delay-reduction hypothesis (Fantino, 1985) in that the rejections generally increased the time to reinforcement. We did not directly test the predictions of a delayof-reinforcement model (=-=Mazur & Vaughan, 1987-=-) because the times taken to search, reject, and procure were too variable within rats in our laboratory foraging simulation. The rats were efficient in that their total cost was lower than if they ha...

Operant Conditioning Simulations of Foraging and the Delay-Reduction Hypothesis

Choice, optimal foraging, and the delay-reduction hypothesis.

Wildlife Online - European Hedgehogs

Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was varied by changing the duration (in terms of a fixed interval) of the waiting-time component preceding its presentation. Forty-eight students were randomly assigned to three groups. In Phase 1, the duration of the less profitable schedule equaled the mean delay to reinforcement in all groups. In Phase 2, waiting time preceding the less profitable schedule was reduced in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. Thus, the schedule was correlated either with a relative delay increase (Group 1) or a delay reduction (Group 2). In Group 3, conditions remained unchanged. As predicted, acceptance of the less profitable schedule decreased in Group 1 and increased in Group 2. The increased acceptance in Group 2 was accompanied by a decreased acceptance of the more profitable (variable-interval 3 s) schedule, resembling a pattern of negative contrast. Response rates were higher under the component preceding (a) the more profitable schedule in Group 1 and (b) the less profitable schedule in Group 2. Implications for the modification of human choice behavior are discussed.

... been one focus of interest in the literature on operant behavior, witnessed, for example, by the extensive literature generated by the matching law (Herrnstein, 1970) and the delay-reduction models (=-=Fantino, 1985-=-). These studies have used concurrent choice paradigms in open economies. In contrast, foraging theorists have presented models of successive choice (Schoener, 1971). Because food sources are usually ...

EUROPEAN HEDGEHOG Erinaceus europaeus

Pigeons were exposed to a foraging schedule characterized by three different states, beginning with a search state in which completion of a variable interval on a white key led to a choice state. In the choice state the subject could, by appropriate responding on a fixed ratio of three, either accept or reject the schedule offered. If the subject accepted the schedule, it entered a handling state in which the appropriate reinforcer amount was presented according to a variable-interval schedule. In Experiment 1 the shorter duration reinforcer was more likely to be accepted the longer the duration of the search state and the shorter the equal durations of the handling states. In Experiment 2 the shorter duration reinforcer was more likely to be accepted the longer the handling time preceding the longer duration reinforcer. All of the results were in qualitative--and some were in quantitative--agreement with those predicted by the delay-reduction hypothesis and the optimal-diet model.

Content Updated: 14th August 2014

...970) and the delay-reduction models (Fantino, 1985). These studies have used concurrent choice paradigms in open economies. In contrast, foraging theorists have presented models of successive choice (=-=Schoener, 1971-=-). Because food sources are usually clumped and distributed discontinuously, or patchily, an animal must forage to come into contact with food. As it forages, it may sequentially encounter food patche...

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Biology Exam #1 Flashcards | Quizlet


Wavelet neural networks: A practical guide - …

...t cost, meal patterns, food intake, rat Choice has been one focus of interest in the literature on operant behavior, witnessed, for example, by the extensive literature generated by the matching law (=-=Herrnstein, 1970-=-) and the delay-reduction models (Fantino, 1985). These studies have used concurrent choice paradigms in open economies. In contrast, foraging theorists have presented models of successive choice (Sch...

AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

Recent trends in behavioral ecology and behavior analysis suggest that the two disciplines complement one another, underscoring the desirability of an integrated approach to behavior. Three examples from the foraging literature illustrate the potential value of an interdisciplinary approach. For example, a model of natural selection for foraging efficiency—optimal foraging theory—makes several predictions consistent with an hypothesis of a more proximate phenomenon, the reduction in delay to primary reinforcement. Not only are the ecological and behavior analytic approaches to behavior complementary, but each may provide insights into the operation of controlling variables in situations usually thought of as being the other’s domain.

Yoh Iwasa, Masahiko Higashi, and Norio Yamamura

Upon initial consideration, it is not clear how the delay reduction hypothesis can account for the manipulation of food and the absence of food prior to the discriminative stimuli (). In this case, trial duration should be the same for all trials. But according to the delay reduction hypothesis it is the time between reinforcements that is critical (). Under most discrete-trial procedures, trial duration and interreinforcement time are highly correlated because an intertrial interval of constant duration separates the trials. In the case of food versus the absence of food as a prior event, however, the interreinforcement interval would be much shorter on trials with a food event (there would typically be two food presentations per trial; one as the event that preceded the discriminative stimuli and one as the reinforcement following choice of the correct discriminative stimulus). If those intervals are shorter, the predictive value of the discriminative stimuli should be reduced (relative to their predictive value on trials without food as the prior event) and such discriminative stimuli should not be preferred.

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