To attempt to quantify the effects of greenhouse gases on the global temperature, climatologists use the "" of the current atmospheric content of these gases.
Antarctic birds and mammals - penguins, whales and seals - are warm blooded animals and they maintain similar internal body temperatures to warm blooded animals in any other climate zone - that is 35-42°C (95-107°F) depending on the species. They have to keep high body temperatures to remain active. These animals are known as endotherms (endo-inside + therm-heat) as they generate their heat internally. Antarctica's cold and wind mean that this heat can very quickly be lost leading to hypothermia (hypo-under).
An issue of major concern is the possible effect of the burning of fossil fuels and other contributers to the in the atmosphere. The action of carbon dioxide and other in trapping infrared radiation is called the . It may measurably increase the overall average temperature of the Earth, which could have disastrous consequences. Sometimes the effects of the greenhouse effect are stated in terms of the of the Earth, the overall average reflection coefficient.
The effects of x-ray radiation on seed germinationMethods of testing seed viabilityThe effect of seed size on germination The effects of artificial gravity, ultraviolet light, and magnetic fields on seed germination and the growth of the root.
cloth methodsThe effect of temperature on the percentage of germinationThe effect of tobacco and alcohol on seed germinationHow is germination and growth affected in plants rooted in soil after a forest fire?
Within matter, atoms and their constituents are constantly in motion. The arrangement and motion of atoms vary in characteristic ways, depending on the substance and its current state (e.g., solid, liquid). Chemical composition, temperature, and pressure affect such arrangements and motions of atoms, as well as the ways in which they interact. Under a given set of conditions, the state and some properties (e.g., density, elasticity, viscosity) are the same for different bulk quantities of a substance, whereas other properties (e.g., volume, mass) provide measures of the size of the sample at hand.
. Different kinds of matter exist (e.g., wood, metal, water), and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties (e.g., visual, aural, textural), by its uses, and by whether it occurs naturally or is manufactured. Different properties are suited to different purposes. A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces (e.g., blocks, construction sets). Objects or samples of a substance can be weighed, and their size can be described and measured. (Boundary: volume is introduced only for liquid measure.)
“Collision theory” provides a qualitative model for explaining the rates of chemical reactions. Higher rates occur at higher temperatures because atoms are typically moving faster and thus collisions are more frequent; also, a larger fraction of the collisions have sufficient energy to initiate the process. Although a solution or a gas may have constant chemical composition—that is, be in a steady state—chemical reactions may be occurring within it that are dynamically balanced with reactions in opposite directions proceeding at equal rates.
There are many words used to describe the ability of animals to maintain their body temperature. Some are infrequently used these days but all are still used at some time or other.
The basic distinction is between animals such as birds and mammals that maintain a stable core temperature of around 35-42°C irrespective of the environmental temperature and those whose temperature is variable, more closely reflecting the environmental temperature.
The reason that the nomenclature is not straightforward is that there are animals that refuse to sit cleanly in one of the two apparently obvious categories. Some organisms clearly didn't read the rules and sometimes make bits of themselves warmer than other bits irrespective of the ambient temperature or manage to maintain a stable internal temperature without necessarily generating that heat internally.
- Animals that maintain a stable warm core temperature of around 35-42°C, the temperature itself usually being closely monitored, the actual temperature is species dependent and often very precise, 37°C in humans for example, slightly more or less will cause major problems.
- Animals that generate heat from within by metabolic activity, usually this means that they can maintain a stable core temperature of around 35-42°C. The term can also apply some of the time to fish such as tuna that are able to maintain their active swimming muscles at 20°C or so above the temperature of the rest of their body by means of a counter-current heat exchanger, this keeps the swimming muscle warm so it works better and prevents heat loss to the rest of the body.
- homo-same, therm-heat, an animal that maintains a stable warm body temperature.
- Animals that have a body temperature the same as the environmental temperature and are unable to warm it above this, not necessarily actually cold if the external temperature is high.
- Animals that cannot generate enough energy from internal metabolic processes to maintain a stable body temperature, heat comes from outside of the animal.
- An animal whose internal temperature varies quite considerably (a little used term any more).
- An organism that warms itself up by basking in the direct rays of the sun.
- hetero-other, therm-heat, an animal that differs in its body temperature at different times.
It is possible that more than one of these terms may apply to a particular animal at different times, which could be daily or annually.
Phenomena involving nuclei are important to understand, as they explain the formation and abundance of the elements, radioactivity, the release of energy from the sun and other stars, and the generation of nuclear power. To explain and predict nuclear processes, two additional types of interactions—known as strong and weak nuclear interactions—must be introduced. They play a fundamental role in nuclei, although not at larger scales because their effects are very short range.
Gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that they be in contact. These forces are explained by force fields that contain energy and can transfer energy through space. These fields can be mapped by their effect on a test object (mass, charge, or magnet, respectively).