Electrical power is supplied by a Pennsylvania electric company on two 13.2KV service feeders via underground ductbank. The 15KV duel line switchgear with bus tie breaker, rated at 2,000A delivers electricity to three substations by means of secondary selective for improved reliability. Two 2,500KVA double ended substations with tie breaker, step 13.2KV to 480/277V, 3ф, 4 wires, and distribute services to the research facility and CUP respectively. A 5,000KVA substation steps 13.2KV to 4160V, 3ф, 4 wires for a 2,000 ton electric centrifugal chiller. Emergency/life safety demand is supported by two 2MW diesel powered generators. Additional switchgear and substation will be added to the CUP as part of future phases.
The U.S.-Canadian power system currently consists of four large regions (see ) within which all connected generators operate synchronously. Asynchronous connections between the regions are accomplished with DC tie lines or back-to-back AC-DC-AC converters (asynchronous links). Large synchronous regions evolved for economic power transfers and for the mutual support inherent with AC transmission. Under some operating conditions, however, large synchronous interconnections are vulnerable to large cascading failures when certain faults occur. (For examples, see Table 1.1.) Upgrades of AC transmission capability to improve the strength of the existing interconnections, the selective addition of advanced controls, and power electronics-based equipment, and other solutions such as prioritized modernization of power plant and substation equipment, including emergency control and protection are urgently needed.
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A critical component of the bulk power system is the design and layout of transmission substations and switch-yards. Substations are designed for reliability, flexibility of operation (including access), and cost. Substations provide the ability to safely switch equipment out of service during either scheduled or unscheduled outages while maintaining service. Several substation configurations have evolved to
As noted in previous chapters, to ensure continuity of service, utilities currently incorporate various degrees of contingency design into the design and operation of generating stations, substations, and transmission and distribution systems. The purpose of contingency design is to ensure that the loss of one or more components up to a defined design level should neither result in loss of service to customers nor lead to remaining in-service equipment exceeding designed operating specifications or ratings. Utilities have generally developed contingency designs based on the failure of single pieces of equipment or of a common support structure (such as a common transmission tower) rather than damage to multiple pieces of equipment at a given location or even the loss of multiple key facilities.
Finding 6.3 The robustness and resilience of power systems can be significantly improved by prioritized modernization of power plant and transmission infrastructure and deployment of technological advancements. Many power plant and substation enhancements can be rapidly implemented at low cost compared to the construction of new transmission lines. Potential upgrades include modern circuit protection systems, communications, generator excitation equipment, and shunt capacitor banks to increase generator reactive power reserve.
• This approach consists of the use of advanced sensors with communications infrastructure so that an electric utility can monitor and remotely control distribution. SCADA systems as part of distribution substations allow electric utility dispatchers to monitor feeder information, such as voltage level and feeder loading, with the coincident ability to open and close feeder breakers remotely. Systems for automated distribution and control can be incrementally introduced and are already in place in some parts of the country. Compelling arguments concerning economic development can be advanced for at least some such improvements, since distribution-system disturbances account for most of the power outages experienced by customers. State regulators should require local companies engaged in distribution to undertake studies that explore the potential benefits and costs of such upgrades, and then to mount programs of improvement that have clear positive net benefits.
electrical tranformer substation Compact structure, small size, only with the capacity of domestic-made European box changes 1/3 to 1/5 or so, greatly reducing the area.
Finding 6.10 Consideration should be given to redesigning some critical substations using buswork in pipes insulated with SF6 with switchgear incorporated in the gas-insulated equipment. This approach allows more compact substation design, and the critical facility could then be relocated indoors or underground to provide more security against attacks.
Another area where there are design and operational strategies to mitigate the effect of attacks is the engineering of the distribution system. Once electric power has been transmitted in bulk over transmission lines, it is delivered to distribution or bulk power delivery substations where it is distributed to customers. Distribution substations consist of multiple step-down transformers that reduce the relatively high voltage of transmission lines to lower distribution voltages. Although some large industrial customers take electric power at higher voltages, more than 90 percent of all the electric power distributed in the United States is delivered at less than 15,000 volts.
In North America, the bulk power system is monitored and managed at energy control centers, also called SCADA-EMSs or simply energy management systems (EMSs). Data acquisition and remote control are performed by computer systems called SCADA systems. shows a schematic of a modern EMS. Note that a SCADA system communicates with generating plants, substations, and other remote devices.
The project involves installation of 7 substations and 7 stand by generators, laying cables for innumerable pump-motors and complete metering, instrumentation, protection and SCADA based control