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Synthesis and characterization of Pt-Pd alloy ..

Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis ofRh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR byretarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metalsalts using a syringe pump.

AB - The shape of metal alloy nanocrystals plays an important role in catalytic performances. Many methods developed so far in controlling the morphologies of nanocrystals are however limited by the synthesis that is often material and shape specific. Here we show using a gas reducing agent in liquid solution (GRAILS) method, different Pt alloy (Pt-M, M = Co, Fe, Ni, Pd) nanocrystals with cubic and octahedral morphologies can be prepared under the same kind of reducing reaction condition. A broad range of compositions can also be obtained for these Pt alloy nanocrystals. Thus, this GRAILS method is a general approach to the preparation of uniform shape and composition-controlled Pt alloy nanocrystals. The area-specific oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities of Pt3Ni catalysts at 0.9 V are 0.85 mA/cm2 Pt for the nanocubes, and 1.26 mA/cm2 Pt for the nanooctahedra. The ORR mass activity of the octahedral Pt3Ni catalyst reaches 0.44 A/mgPt.

Seed-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanorods: Role of …

Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles via ..

N2 - The shape of metal alloy nanocrystals plays an important role in catalytic performances. Many methods developed so far in controlling the morphologies of nanocrystals are however limited by the synthesis that is often material and shape specific. Here we show using a gas reducing agent in liquid solution (GRAILS) method, different Pt alloy (Pt-M, M = Co, Fe, Ni, Pd) nanocrystals with cubic and octahedral morphologies can be prepared under the same kind of reducing reaction condition. A broad range of compositions can also be obtained for these Pt alloy nanocrystals. Thus, this GRAILS method is a general approach to the preparation of uniform shape and composition-controlled Pt alloy nanocrystals. The area-specific oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities of Pt3Ni catalysts at 0.9 V are 0.85 mA/cm2 Pt for the nanocubes, and 1.26 mA/cm2 Pt for the nanooctahedra. The ORR mass activity of the octahedral Pt3Ni catalyst reaches 0.44 A/mgPt.

The shape of metal alloy nanocrystals plays an important role in catalytic performances. Many methods developed so far in controlling the morphologies of nanocrystals are however limited by the synthesis that is often material and shape specific. Here we show using a gas reducing agent in liquid solution (GRAILS) method, different Pt alloy (Pt-M, M = Co, Fe, Ni, Pd) nanocrystals with cubic and octahedral morphologies can be prepared under the same kind of reducing reaction condition. A broad range of compositions can also be obtained for these Pt alloy nanocrystals. Thus, this GRAILS method is a general approach to the preparation of uniform shape and composition-controlled Pt alloy nanocrystals. The area-specific oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities of Pt3Ni catalysts at 0.9 V are 0.85 mA/cm2 Pt for the nanocubes, and 1.26 mA/cm2 Pt for the nanooctahedra. The ORR mass activity of the octahedral Pt3Ni catalyst reaches 0.44 A/mgPt.

Photochemical Synthesis of Gold Nanorods - Journal of …

Here, we have demonstratedshape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with highactivity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at anultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump.

Six different pulverized palladium-containing dental alloys have been tested for their subacute toxicity in rats (Wistar, = 10, 5 females, 5 males). Compared with controls, all specimens caused significant histopathological changes in lung, liver, kidney, small intestine and colon following daily oral doses of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 7 days (and sacrifice after 7 additional days). The strongest effects were seen with compositions containing copper and/or indium: Pd73, Cu14, In5; Pd74, Sn16, Cu9; and Au51, Pd39, In4-9. The weakest effects were observed for the Pd58, Ag30, Sn6 alloy, and the changes due to the Pd80, Sn7, Ga6-8 and Au77, Pt10, Pd9 alloys fell in between (Fuhrmann, 1992; Reuling, 1992; Reuling et al., 1992).

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Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology


PDF Downloads : Oriental Journal of Chemistry

Altogether, the rates of response depend on test system and parameter tested. For example, human macrophages are less sensitive to palladium(II) chloride than mouse fibroblasts (Wataha et al., 1995b). With regard to parameters, the following order of responses was found: DNA synthesis decreased most rapidly, followed by protein synthesis, mitochondrial activity and total protein content (Wataha et al., 1991b, 1994b). These changes, which affect cell metabolism and protein production, generally occurred at lower Pd2+ concentrations in cultured macrophages than those that caused cell lysis (indicated by a loss of cellular membrane activity and measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase) (Wataha et al., 1995b). TC50 levels for palladium(II) chloride derived from tests of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) with mouse, hamster and human cell lines ranged from 134 to 360 µmol/litre (Wataha et al., 1991b, 1995b; Schmalz et al., 1997a).

Environmental Health Criteria 226

Palladium-containing alloys tested varied in their cytotoxicity, depending mainly on microstructure and composition of the samples (Kawahara et al., 1968; Kawata et al., 1981; Niemi & Hensten-Pettersen, 1985; Ito et al., 1995; Warocquier-Clerout et al., 1995). Severe effects seem to be triggered by other components (e.g., copper). Exposure of a high-noble alloy (Au58, Ag25, Pd13, Zn4; weight per cent) to human fibroblast-keratinocyte co-cultures resulted in a 87-90% reduction of cell viability (MTT assay), but there was no change in prostaglandin E2 or interleukin-6 levels (Schmalz et al., 1997b, 1998). Differences from controls in fibronectin arrangement and cell proliferation were observed with an alloy containing 78% palladium (Au2, Pt1, Pd78, Ag6, Sn2.5, In1.5, Ga9) in a human fibroblast culture (Grill et al., 1997).

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