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Divergent and convergent synthesis of GalNAc …

7. Organoiron Routes to a New Dendron for Fast Dendritic Syntheses Using Divergent and Convergent Methods. V. Sartor, L. Djakovitch, J.-L. Fillaut, F. Moulines, F. Neveu, V. Marvaud, J. Guittard, J.-C. Blais, D. Astruc, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 2929 – 2930. Construction of Giant Dendrimers Using a Tripodal Buiding Block. J. Ruiz, G. Lafuente J. Ruiz, G. Lafuente, S. Marcen, C. Ornelas, S. Lazare, E. Cloutet, J.-C. Blais, D. Astruc. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125, 7250 – 7257. Organometallic Chemistry at the Nanoscale: Dendrimers for Redox Processes and Catalysis. D. Astruc. Pure Appl. Chem. 2003, 75, 461 – 48.

A series of novel ester-capped carbosilane dendrimers (G0-COOCH3-G2-COOCH3) were designed and successfully synthesized via a hybrid divergent-convergent method through a facile hydrosilylation reaction. The structures of these dendrimers were confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, and HRMS analyses.

Moving plates interact at divergent, convergent and transform fault boundaries.

Convergent dendrimer synthesis by olefin metathesis …

S.; Jin, S.-H., Convergent Synthesis of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical PAMAM Dendrimers.

 Scientists identify the boundaries between two plates by the plate movement.  There are three types of plate boundaries: 1. Divergent 2. Convergent.

The third stage begins with a burst of creativity and imagination. Because the design brief outlines the clear opportunity, the team begins creating solutions and concepts. Inside the creative space, the goal is volume of ideas. The details and specifications are irrelevant at this stage. It’s not just throwing out ideas, it’s physically making the ideas. This forces the team to think visually (as a designer), because by using your hands you have a better sense intuitively if your ideas is right or wrong, and how to improve it. Oftentimes you work directly with the end user to create and build the ideas. Returning to a period of divergency and analysis, the team builds rough prototypes (also known as low-res or low-fidelity), seeks feedback from users, and continues to refine the ideas into clear options.

Convergent synthesis of dendrimers based on 1,3,3 ..

AB - The divergent, convergent, and double-stage convergent methods for synthesizing phenylacetylene dendritic macromolecules are examined. Syntheses based on the divergent or double-stage convergent approaches are severely hampered by poor solubility of the growing macromolecules. The double-stage method is nonetheless successfully used in attaining a high molecular weight and apparently monodisperse dendrimer. Using the convergent approach, high molecular weight mono- and tridendrons are prepared. The repetitive chemistry employed for monodendron preparation includes palladium-catalyzed coupling of terminal acetylenes to an aromatic dibromide containing a trimethylsilyl (TMS) masked terminal acetylene. The synthetic cycle is completed by removing the TMS group under mildly basic conditions. These monodendrons can be coupled around a trifunctional core, such as triiodobenzene, yielding tridendrons. Solubility of both the mono- and the tridendrons is strongly dependent on the nature of the peripheral group. Qualitatively, solubility tends to plummet in the early stages of growth. Provided that growth can be sustained, however, this trend tends to reverse as the synthesis progresses. The best peripheral group of those examined thus far for maintaining adequate solubility of both mono- and tridendrons over this critical solubility minimum is di-tert-butylphenylacetylene. For dendrimers containing this peripheral group, solubility is high even in aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents at room temperature. When poor solubility does not hamper the synthesis, the limiting factors to sustaining growth become as much dependent on the ability to purify and characterize the product of the coupling reaction as on the chemistry of the coupling reaction itself. Size-exlusion chromatography is shown to be inadequate for differentiating partially coupled products from fully coupled tridendrons. This problem is believed to be especially severe for stiff dendritic macromolecules, since their molecular cross section is essentially constant once two of the three monodendrons have coupled to the central core. Unequivocal proof of structure for mono- and tridendrons through generation four (C1134H1146, mol wt 14 776) has been obtained using a combination of chromatographic techniques, isotope labeling studies, mass spectrometry, and multidimensional NMR experiments.

W.; Kim, B.-K.; Jin, S.-H., Convergent synthesis of triazole dendrimers via click chemistry using tripodal core.

N2 - The divergent, convergent, and double-stage convergent methods for synthesizing phenylacetylene dendritic macromolecules are examined. Syntheses based on the divergent or double-stage convergent approaches are severely hampered by poor solubility of the growing macromolecules. The double-stage method is nonetheless successfully used in attaining a high molecular weight and apparently monodisperse dendrimer. Using the convergent approach, high molecular weight mono- and tridendrons are prepared. The repetitive chemistry employed for monodendron preparation includes palladium-catalyzed coupling of terminal acetylenes to an aromatic dibromide containing a trimethylsilyl (TMS) masked terminal acetylene. The synthetic cycle is completed by removing the TMS group under mildly basic conditions. These monodendrons can be coupled around a trifunctional core, such as triiodobenzene, yielding tridendrons. Solubility of both the mono- and the tridendrons is strongly dependent on the nature of the peripheral group. Qualitatively, solubility tends to plummet in the early stages of growth. Provided that growth can be sustained, however, this trend tends to reverse as the synthesis progresses. The best peripheral group of those examined thus far for maintaining adequate solubility of both mono- and tridendrons over this critical solubility minimum is di-tert-butylphenylacetylene. For dendrimers containing this peripheral group, solubility is high even in aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents at room temperature. When poor solubility does not hamper the synthesis, the limiting factors to sustaining growth become as much dependent on the ability to purify and characterize the product of the coupling reaction as on the chemistry of the coupling reaction itself. Size-exlusion chromatography is shown to be inadequate for differentiating partially coupled products from fully coupled tridendrons. This problem is believed to be especially severe for stiff dendritic macromolecules, since their molecular cross section is essentially constant once two of the three monodendrons have coupled to the central core. Unequivocal proof of structure for mono- and tridendrons through generation four (C1134H1146, mol wt 14 776) has been obtained using a combination of chromatographic techniques, isotope labeling studies, mass spectrometry, and multidimensional NMR experiments.

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Synthesis of Dendrimers: Convergent and Divergent Approaches


Convergent Dendrimer Synthesis

The divergent, convergent, and double-stage convergent methods for synthesizing phenylacetylene dendritic macromolecules are examined. Syntheses based on the divergent or double-stage convergent approaches are severely hampered by poor solubility of the growing macromolecules. The double-stage method is nonetheless successfully used in attaining a high molecular weight and apparently monodisperse dendrimer. Using the convergent approach, high molecular weight mono- and tridendrons are prepared. The repetitive chemistry employed for monodendron preparation includes palladium-catalyzed coupling of terminal acetylenes to an aromatic dibromide containing a trimethylsilyl (TMS) masked terminal acetylene. The synthetic cycle is completed by removing the TMS group under mildly basic conditions. These monodendrons can be coupled around a trifunctional core, such as triiodobenzene, yielding tridendrons. Solubility of both the mono- and the tridendrons is strongly dependent on the nature of the peripheral group. Qualitatively, solubility tends to plummet in the early stages of growth. Provided that growth can be sustained, however, this trend tends to reverse as the synthesis progresses. The best peripheral group of those examined thus far for maintaining adequate solubility of both mono- and tridendrons over this critical solubility minimum is di-tert-butylphenylacetylene. For dendrimers containing this peripheral group, solubility is high even in aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents at room temperature. When poor solubility does not hamper the synthesis, the limiting factors to sustaining growth become as much dependent on the ability to purify and characterize the product of the coupling reaction as on the chemistry of the coupling reaction itself. Size-exlusion chromatography is shown to be inadequate for differentiating partially coupled products from fully coupled tridendrons. This problem is believed to be especially severe for stiff dendritic macromolecules, since their molecular cross section is essentially constant once two of the three monodendrons have coupled to the central core. Unequivocal proof of structure for mono- and tridendrons through generation four (C1134H1146, mol wt 14 776) has been obtained using a combination of chromatographic techniques, isotope labeling studies, mass spectrometry, and multidimensional NMR experiments.

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