The purpose of this paper is to investigate the facts behind this argument anddetermine whether or not he is a valid example of this phenomenon. Three sources ofinformation have been studied: works about Soviet music and biographical information aboutShostakovich; the composers own statements on the subject in his memoirs and variousinterviews; and last, but not least, the composers musical works.
There are three factors to be considered in this argument: Shostakovichs basiccharacter, as evidenced by statements made by and about him, Shostakovichs own statementsabout his development, and the evidentiary matter mentioned above. Since the first, hischaracter, influences how we weigh the other facts, it will be discussed first.
The final section of your thesis may take one of several different forms. Some theses need a conclusion, while for others a summing up will be appropriate. The decisive factor will be the nature of your thesis statement and research question.
Most readers will turn first to the abstract. Use it as an opportunity to spur the reader’s interest. The abstract should summarise the main contents of your thesis, especially the thesis statement, but does not need to cover every aspect of the main text. The main objective is to give the reader a good idea of what the thesis is about.
That his movement away from twelve-tone music was a natural, not an enforceddevelopment was made clear in statements made throughout his later career that this typeof music was not the correct type for the Soviet people. Take the following statement, forexample, made in 1968.
This guide has been created to assist my graduate students in thinkingthrough the many aspects of crafting, implementing and defending a thesisor dissertation. It is my attempt to share some of the many ideas thathave surfaced over the past few years that definitely make the task offinishing a graduate degree so much easier. (This Guide is a companion to the .)
11. What is a proposal anyway? A good proposal should consist of thefirst three chapters of the dissertation. It should begin with a statementof the problem/background information (typically Chapter I of the dissertation),then move on to a review of the literature (Chapter 2), and conclude witha defining of the research methodology (Chapter 3). Of course, it shouldbe written in a future tense since it is a proposal. To turn a good proposalinto the first three chapters of the dissertation consists of changingthe tense from future tense to past tense (from "This is what I wouldlike to do" to "This is what I did") and making any changesbased on the way you actually carried out the research when compared tohow you proposed to do it. Often the intentions we state in our proposalturn out different in reality and we then have to make appropriate editorialchanges to move it from proposal to dissertation.
27. If you are including a Conclusions/Implications section in yourdissertation make sure you really present conclusions and implications.Often the writer uses the conclusions/implications section to merely restatethe research findings. Don't waste my time. I've already read the findingsand now, at the Conclusion/Implication section, I want you to help me understandwhat it all means. This is a key section of the dissertation and is sometimesbest done after you've had a few days to step away from your research andallow yourself to put your research into perspective. If you do this youwill no doubt be able to draw a variety of insights that help link yourresearch to other areas. I usually think of conclusions/implications asthe "So what" statements. In other words, what are the key ideasthat we can draw from your study to apply to my areas of concern.
30. The most obvious suggestion is the one seldom followed. Try to attendone or more defenses prior to yours. Find out which other studentsare defending their research and sit in on their defense. In many departmentsthis is expected of all graduate students. If this is not the case foryou, check with your adviser to see that you can get an invitationto attend some defenses.
Shostakovich forced a compromise. On another occasion, Stalin turned on anothercomposer, Alexandrov. Feeling backed into a corner and scared, Alexandrov tried to divertStalins attention to his orchestrator. Shostakovich, who was present and realized thepotential consequences for the orchestrator, defended him and lead the conversation toother, safer matters.
He showed his courage in other ways: He composed his vocal cycle in the highly anti-semitic climate of the late 1940s. (True, itwasnt heardin public until after Stalins death, but anti-semitism didnt die with Stalin, either.)He used some of Evtushenkos poems in his Thirteenth Symphony () about themassacre of Jews in World War II. After the Manege incident in December of 1962, whereKhrushchev attacked some abstract artists, Shostakovich joined other leading artisticfigures in signing a petition defending the abstract artists.