During a period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, three or more of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) are present to a significant degree and represent a notable change in behavior:
It's a term, mostly used by lawyers,for poor natural-science (old studies, bad studies, discreditedstudies; also statistics and tables out of context as in pseudoscience)used in arguments directed at thepublic or in court.
Introduction: Historical development of the field, interdisciplinary perspectives linking psychology, economics and neuroscience, Overview of the field with real life examples.
What is insidious about the psychopathology of anorexia is that it is sustained, in part, by the powerful allure of the safety it creates – the mock sanity fostered by extreme discipline and a distinct sense-of-self that the individual embraces. Pleasures and interests narrow, leaving delusive ideas such as, “My illness is my friend” (Strober in Grilo and Mitchell, 2010).
Sharing the spotlight with libidinal drives at this time was the nature of conflict in neurotic disturbance. For Freud a key factor in neurotic conflict was repression—the blocking of a wish and its derivatives and associations from conscious understanding and action; symptoms of conflict were a manifestation and outcome of repression—they reflected a strategy of conflict resolution arising out of the impasse which repression imposes upon gratification. That his interest narrowed to the one adaptational function of defensive repression partly reflected the logical momentum of his theory which led to, and was continually fed by, particular emphases of clinical observation. It is also true, however, that clarification of the dynamics of repression seemed to be dictated by therapeutic necessity. For according to the theory, the goal of therapy is to uncover the repressed; therefore, it is crucial to give observational priority to indications of the “return of the repressed” and to the means of overcoming the ill effects of repression. [, .]
From civil rights to freedom of speech, civil disobedience and nonviolent protest became a central part of the sixties culture, albeit representative of only a small portion of the population.
Modes of thought, Heuristics and biases: Modes of thought (intuitive and deliberative), heuristics (anchoring and availability, representativeness), Biases (Framing effects, mental accounting), taming intuitive heuristics, self-regulation in the brain, The positive side of heuristic decision making.
Although the ego was present in this conception, its status was that of a curiously vague entity, identified most of the time, but not exclusively, as the agency of the repressive force. Emphasis was given to its function, in relation to drive and wish, and its capacity, rather than to its capacities for promoting effective gratification; it was identified not only with the repressing force but with the body of ideas—internalized value structures, as well as consciously acceptable and accessible ideas, which instigated resistiveness to drive discharge. Freud also tended to link capacities for conscious experience and will with the ego, but this was loosely developed and does not easily fit with the notion of the ego as an agency that promotes elisions of consciousness through repression. The absence of any detailed regard for how these oppositely effective functions are related within the ego is an example of Freud’s disinclination, in this period, to systematize the ego conception.
Kelly, protechnology, and Sale, a contemporary neo-Luddite, discuss many technological issues, including the automation of the labor force, oral tradition, literacy, and civilization....
Choice under certainty - concept of preference in rational choice theory, revealed preference, decision making under certainty. Choice under uncertainty – The concept of value and utility under uncertainty, psychological weighting of probabilities, deciding about prospects, gains and losses, Neural representations of subjective value and choices in the brain.
Strober (Grilo and Mitchell, 2010) presents a paradigm for treating the chronic anorexic. The goal is to create a palliative, holding management of carefully measured intensity with support and comfort to the individual. Steps are taken to cushion the effects of the illness. The 7-step approach includes:
It is possible that the reduced importance of a specific environmental etiology of neurosis affected Freud’s interest in the ego, if not his assumption that the ego was necessary in his over-all conception of psychical structure; that aspect of the ego which is purely adaptational became less compelling. Parental behavior and family life were significant aspects of the environment—but significant only as potential impediments which produced conflict and provoked defense. The possible supportive importance of environmental structure to normal drive functioning as a molding and implementing influence—not simply an obstacle to the evolutionary-given momentum of libido—was not a natural fulcrum of interest for libido theory and, hence, received little attention. One also wonders if premonitions of possible contradiction with the libido theory contributed to the stasis of the ego concept in this period, since Freud’s account of the motivational and structuring force of libidinal drives included attributes that he later, under the pressure of observation, imputed to the ego.
As for motivations specifically attributable to the ego, Freud spoke about them only with respect to the ego’s role as an instrumentality of the pleasure principle and its role of defense. He did for a time speak of “ego drives,” but he gave up the notion, possibly because of difficulties in making it compatible with the libido theory. It seemed necessary to emphasize only to instinctual drive and containment of drive by defense. Indeed, this emphasis is common even today. Clinicians are still inclined to regard the ego mainly in the light of its participation in conflict and in its partnership with instinctual drives pressing for discharge.