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GSK-3, glycogen synthase kinase-3; nM, nanomolar; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; GS, glycogen synthase; PI-3 kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase; PKB, protein kinase B; BD, bipolar disorder; AD, Alzheimer's disease; Wnt pathway, a pathway that transfers signals from the outside of the cell to the inside of the cell through cell surface receptors; β-catenin, cadherin association protein; KDa, kilodalton; IC50, the half maximal inhibitory concentration; SAR, structure activity relationship; HBD, hydrogen bond donor; HBA, hydrogen bond acceptor; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Pgp, P-glycoprotein; PET, positron emission tomography; MDR-MDCK assay, a permeability assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with the gene; CDK1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1; ERK2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, also known as mitogen activated protein kinase; IL-8, interleukin 8; ZDF, Zucker diabetic fatty; PIM1, proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase; PAK1, serine/threonine-protein kinase 1; DAPK1, death-associated protein kinase 1; MLCK, myosin light-chain kinase; FLT4, fms-related tyrosine kinase 4; CK2, casein kinase-II; CLK1, dual specificity protein kinase; PD, Parkinson's disease; HD, Huntington's disease; CNS, central nervous system; TMED, threshold minimum effective dose; TDZD, Thiadiazolidinones; PKA, protein kinase A; PKC, protein kinase C; PSP, progressive supranuclear palsy; MMSE, mini-mental status examination, cGMP, current Good Manufacturing Practice; and ITDZ, 5-imino-1, 2, 4-thiadiazole.
36. Dewhurst S, Maggirwar SB, Schifitto G, Gendelman HE, Gelbard HA. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta) as a therapeutic target in neuroAIDS. 2007;2:93-6
44. Denham M, Bye C, Leung J, Conley BJ, Thompson LH, Dottori M. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and activin/nodal inhibition in human embryonic stem cells induces a pre-neuroepithelial state that is required for specification to a floor plate cell lineage. 2012;30:2400-11
In HYPERGLYCEMIA, it is common to see glycogen "in" hepatic nuclei (really, in a deep cup-shaped depression in the side of the nucleus; the nucleus looks clear), pancreatic beta cells, and (if control is really poor) in the proximal tubular epithelial cells (why?).