De Graaf I, Prak A, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Thomas S, Peul W, Koes B. Diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. A systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Spine 2006;31:1168-1176.
Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel S. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects; a prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:403-8.
Kobayashi, S. et al. Effect of lumbar nerve root compression on primary sensory neurons and their central branches: changes in the nociceptive neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin. Spine 2005;30:276–282.
Kanno H, Endo T, Ozawa H, Koizumi Y, Morozumi N, Itoi E, Ishii Y. Axial Loading During Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis. Does It Reproduce the Positional Change of the Dural Sac Detected by Upright Myelography? .Spine 2012 ; 37 : E985 – E992.
Abdu WA, Lurie JD, Spratt KF, et al. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. Spine 2009;34:2351–2360.
Roberts S, Present status of the biology of disc degeneration and inflammatory cascade: Relationship to present and potential treatments, presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine at Spine Week 2012, Amsterdam, Netherlands; as yet unpublished.
Freeman et al., A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of etanercept delivered by the transforaminal route for the treatment of symptomatic lumbosacral disc herniation, presented at Spine Week 2012, Amsterdam, Netherlands; as yet unpublished.
Ohtori S et al., Epidural administration of spinal nerves with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, etanercept, compared with dexamethasone for treatment of sciatica in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: A prospective randomized study, Spine, 2012;37:439–44.
Snook SH, Webster BS, McGorry RW, Fogleman MT, McCann KB (1998) The reduction of chronic nonspecific low back pain through the control of early morning lumbar flexion. A randomized controlled trial. Spine, 23(23): 2601-7.
Axelsson P, Johnsson R, Stromqvist B, Andreasson H (1999) External pedicular fixation of the lumbar spine: outcome evaluation by functional tests. J Spinal Disord, 12(2): 147-50.
O'Sullivan PB, Phyty GD, Twomey LT, Allison GT (1997) Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. Spine, 22(24): 2959-67.
Kankaanpaa M, Taimela S, Airaksinen O, Hanninen O (1999) The efficacy of active rehabilitation in chronic low back pain. Effect on pain intensity, self-experienced disability, and lumbar fatigability. Spine, 24(10): 1034-42.
Fritzell P, Hagg O, Wessberg P, Nordwall A (2002) Chronic low back pain and fusion: a comparison of three surgical techniques: a prospective multicenter randomized study from the Swedish lumbar spine study group. Spine, 27(11): 1131-41.
Dufour N, Thamsborg G, Oefeldt A, Lundsgaard C, Stender S. Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain A Randomized, Clinical Trial Comparing Group-Based Multidisciplinary Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation and IntensiveIndividual Therapist-Assisted Back Muscle Strengthening Exercises. SPINE2010, Volume 35, Number 5, pp 469–476
Fritzell P, Hagg O, Nordwall A (2003) Complications in lumbar fusion surgery for chronic low back pain: comparison of three surgical techniques used in a prospective randomized study. A report from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Eur Spine J, 12(2): 178-89.