An interpersonal style where only the immediate needs of the self are considered rather than the needs of others. (As opposed to passive or assertive)
AB - Considerable differences exist in the size and direction of the relationship between television viewing and fear of crime found by previous studies. This article argues that different types of fear exist and that fear should not be confused with perception of risk. A distinction was introduced between dispositional fear of crime and situational fear of crime. The relationship between television viewing and the two types of fear was examined and a distinction was made between direct, indirect, and mediated experience with crime. Hawkins and Pingree (1990) hypothesized that direct experience would interact negatively with television viewing, whereas cultivation's resonance hypothesis assumed a positive interaction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,394 adults in Flanders, Belgium. Television viewing was positively related to dispositional fear of crime, whereas direct experience with crime was not. Direct experience predicted situational fear of crime, whereas television did not. There were no interaction effects. This study suggests that the relationship between television viewing and fear of crime depends upon the operationalization of the concept of fear of crime. More research is needed to establish which types of fear exist and how they are related to television viewing and direct experience with crime.
Like BIS and BAS, prevention and promotion focus () are also distinct manifestations of approach and avoidance tendencies. Whereas BIS and BAS are broad dispositional measures of overall sensitivity to punishment and reward, prevention and promotion focus reflect specific types of desired end states, either aspirations (if promotion is the focus) or responsibilities (if prevention is the focus). As an approach strategy is usually taken for promotion and an avoidance strategy is usually taken for prevention (), similar behavioral predictions are frequently made for BAS-oriented and promotion-focused individuals, as well as for BIS-oriented and prevention-focused individuals.
The theory that argues people look for explanation of behavior, associating either dispositional (internal) attributes or situational (external) attributes.
As dispositional motivations are theorized to be central in regulating behavior, adopting an approach/avoidance framework could elucidate how health messages should be framed for different individuals. In particular, the route from health message to behavior change may include several processes, any of which may be influenced by approach/avoidance motivations. Before a health message can lead to behavior change, it must be perceived and remembered, a goal or intention must be formed, and strategies to implement the goal must be selected. There is some evidence that approach/avoidance motivations may influence each of these processes.
In the present study we examined the interaction between dispositional motivations and message frame in predicting whether an individual reports engaging in the health-promoting behavior of dental flossing. Daily flossing has been shown to prevent periodontal disease, tooth decay, and tooth loss (), but surveys suggest that only 13%–33% of adults floss daily (). Beyond the health advantages, using the promotion of dental flossing has two methodological advantages as a focus of the present study. First, while most participants know that daily flossing is recommended, they are also aware that most people do not floss daily, so there are not excessive concerns for evaluation apprehension. Second, by giving participants a set of flosses to take home, we are able to remove one important barrier to flossing (i.e., not having any floss), allowing for a clean test of our hypotheses.
This “enjoyment” of the punishment of those that deserves it makes up the Dispositional Alignment Theory. We like horror movies because the people on screen getting killed deserve it. But this may give us insight into who the audiences want to see eat it but it’s not a clear picture of why horror films are popular in the first place.
In addition to influencing what information is attended to and remembered, approach/avoidance motivation can also influence goal selection, which is another process in the path from health communication to behavior change. Research on achievement motivation finds that individuals with a fear of failure, a motivational disposition conceptually related to avoidance orientation, pursue more avoidance goals (e.g., to avoid performing poorly) in the achievement domain than do individuals with a high need for achievement, a motivational disposition related to approach orientation (). Similarly, individuals with a high need for achievement pursue more approach goals in the achievement domain (e.g., to learn as much as possible in class; ). These findings suggest that it may be difficult for people to adopt goals that are not congruent with their motivational dispositions.
In a study in which participants performed a simple perceptual task, individuals with strong approach motivation were biased toward positive cues, and individuals with strong avoidance motivation were biased toward negative cues (). Similar results have been found in a study of memory for either positive- or negative-framed experiences (). To the extent that one of the steps from health message to behavior change is getting individuals to attend to and remember the message, the findings of these studies suggest that information that is congruent with dispositional motivations will be more effective in persuading individuals to alter their behavior than information that is incongruent with dispositional motivations.
This study presented the first demonstration that tailoring health messages to individuals based on their dispositional motivations can lead to successful self-reported behavior change. As expected, when given a gain-framed health message, individuals who were predominantly approach oriented reported flossing more than individuals who were predominantly avoid oriented. When given a loss-framed message, individuals who were predominantly avoidance oriented reported flossing more than individuals who were predominantly approach oriented.
AB - We examined the mechanisms that underlie the null relation between dispositional happiness and college grade point average (GPA) by testing the hypothesis that dispositional happiness has positive and negative indirect links to GPA that offset each other. The sample consisted of 317 first-year students. Using structural equation modeling, we found that dispositional happiness exerted a positive indirect effect on cumulative GPA via commitment to college (p
N2 - We examined the mechanisms that underlie the null relation between dispositional happiness and college grade point average (GPA) by testing the hypothesis that dispositional happiness has positive and negative indirect links to GPA that offset each other. The sample consisted of 317 first-year students. Using structural equation modeling, we found that dispositional happiness exerted a positive indirect effect on cumulative GPA via commitment to college (p