Twelfth-century Sicily's multiculturalism was not a trendy socio-politicalconcept. It was an everyday reality. By then, the human race had splintered intonumerous ethnic groupings and societies. When anthropologists speak genericallyof genetic or even "racial" influences, they are usually speaking ofvarious mutations and adaptations during the historical period (from cica 4000BC) or the known neolithic era (10,000 BC), when Proto-Celts,Proto-Indo-Europeans (and Sicily's Proto-Sicanians) were well established asdistinct cultures. Certain gene markers, based on mutations, are associated withcertain populations at certain times (in specific generations), but it is notonly these markers which made one a Roman, Viking or Mongol; that's really asocial matter.
"Racialist" descriptions of perceived "racial"characteristics of so-called sub-races (Pontids, Dinarics, Mediterranids,Armenids, Saharids, Arabids, and so forth) are still entertained in certain quarters. Viewed interms of the human genome, race (as the term is commonly used and understood) isa relatively insignificant (or at best superficial) and arbitrary consideration,and we are already seeing more reliance on purely genetic identification. Geneticdiversity is a reality. While race, as the term is traditionally used, is fastbecoming an outmoded concept, specific gene markers (based on relatively"recent" mutations) are naturally linked to persons sharing commonorigins (i.e. the same gene pools) coinciding with Asian, African, European orother "racial" groups or sub-groups. The legitimate scientific basis ofregional (racial) distinctions (but not racialism) is genetic differentiationover thousands of generations.
More and more industry specialists are concerned about what is sometimes called a “system clash” between a generation system based predominantly on a small number of nuclear reactors and large-scale gas or coal-fired power stations, and a system based on multiple renewable generators and more distributed local area networks. Greenpeace’s report (“The Battle of the Grids”) eloquently highlights just how problematic this already is in Europe, where it has become commonplace in a number of countries to switch off wind turbines during periods of plentiful electricity supply in order to give priority to nuclear and coal-fired plant.
5. the fact that a network of massively distributed micro-generators are not compatible with inflexible nuclear reactors - Google 'Renewable Energies and Base Load Power Plants Are Essentially Incompatible' for a paper from the German renewable energy agency
Sicilian history and ethnology are well documented. Not surprisingly, geneticstudies of the Sicilian population for the ancient and medieval periods generallyconfirm what is known historically. As genetic conclusions are keyed togenerations rather than years, historical knowledge sometimes helps to placegenetic developments in their proper context. For example, the prevalence ofmultiple sclerosis in Enna and Monreale may be attributed to genes brought withthe Normans, while diseases of the thalassemia group may have arrived withPhoenician, Greek or Arab peoples. Certain superficial physical traits probablywere widely introduced by specific groups --blue eyes by Normans and Longobards,kinky hair by Arabs, and so forth. That said, apart from avoidance of"inbreeding," the most important aspect of any migration andamalgamation is usually cultural rather than physical. We've come to accept thatmost Vikings had blue eyes, but would their achievements be attenuated if theNorsemen were all brown-eyed?
It's important to remember that gene markers are placedinto their proper chronology based on generations rather than years, and anaverage historical generation is presumed to span 25 years. If recorded andpurely anthropological (i.e. non-genetic) knowledge of human migrations is ratherrecent, in Sicily there are certain native animal species that (based on geneticstudies) are European in origin while others are African. This involves not onlybirds that could fly to Sicily but mammals such as wild cats and foxes. Genes arepart of the human essence, but genetic testing only deals with particular genemarkers in certain sample individuals; it is the science of statistics thatallows us to generalize based on such studies. Various genetic traits (evensuperficial physical ones like red hair and green eyes) were introduced into thepopulation by individuals from various places. This is a generality; it isprobable that there were red-haired Sicilians in Greek times but equally probablethat there were far more following the influx of the "Celtic-Nordic"Normans intermarrying with the local population. History indicates thatamalgamation was always quite normal in Sicily; many of the tenth-century Arabs(mostly men) arriving from northern Africa married Sicilians who were alreadypresent, and the island's population doubled within two centuries as the Arabsfounded dozens of towns and smaller communities across Sicily. In the flow ofhistory, certain localized communities of ethnic Sicilians occasionally leftSicily (some Arabs from a few localities during the reign of in thethirteenth century and some Jews during the Spanish rule at the end of thefifteenth century), but most of these people remained to be completelyintegrated into the population. A mass exodus of Siculo-Arabs, who had lived inSicily for generations and knew no other country, would have entailed themigration of at least a half million people. Eventually, most Arabs and Jews inSicily were Christianized. This is reflected in the historical record not only inactual chronicles but in medieval feudal records of taxes and populationmovements and, still later, acts of baptism.
It therefore seems to me that one of the advantages of multiple, relatively small scale distributed electricity generation is, for those technologies that produce waste heat, there is an ability to utilise this valuable heat energy to achieve much higher overall efficiencies, i.e. CHP, which can achieve efficiencies over 90% with the right application.