Experiments presented here argue that pol μ, and likely TdT as well, will frequently introduce ribonucleotides into sites of end-joining DSB repair in cells. We suggest that this property is advantageous to end joining, as it allows repair synthesis to proceed when dNTP pools are low and limits repair synthesis to short tracts. Possible disadvantages of RNA polymerase activity (e.g., a replication block) may be avoided if ribonucleotides are removed by a cellular repair pathway already in place (, ). Future experiments characterizing and manipulating ribonucleotide incorporation by pol μ and TdT in vivo will be required to further explore the biological significance of this activity.
Clément Paris, Valérie Moreau, Gaëlle Deglane, Loukmane Karim, Bernard Couturier, Marie-Elise Bonnet, Valérie Kedinger, Mélanie Messmer, Anne-Laure Bolcato-Bellemin, Jean-Paul Behr, Patrick Erbacher, and Nathalie Lenne-Samuel
This is a remote influence, connected with the protein synthesis continuum; it’s also an example of the genetic apparatus’ non-local functions, whereby the protein-synthesizing apparatus recognizes mRNA not only in parts (by nucleotides, locally), but in one piece (non-locally) as well.
Here, the translation context effect is clearly seen as a strategic influence of distant mRNA codons on the inclusion (or non-inclusion) of certain amino acids in the composition of a protein being synthesized.
In Paper  the following information is presented: the insertion of a line consisting of nine rarely-used CUA-leucine codons in the position after the 13th one (in the compound of 313 codons of the tested mRNA) resulted in active inhibition of their translation, yet did not notably influence the translation of other CUA-codon-containing mRNAs.
Cloning of this kind has already been carried out on higher biosystems, for example, sheep.
The 4th level is the molecular level: here, the ribosome "would read" mRNA not only on the separate codons, but also on the whole and in consideration of context.
The 5th level is the chromosome-holographic: at this level, a gene has a holographic memory, which is typically distributed, associative, and nonlocal, where the holograms "are read" by electromagnetic or acoustic fields.
Furthermore, the apparent inconsistency between the wavelengths of such radiations and the sizes of organisms, cells and subcell structures is abrogated, since the semantic resonances in the biosystems' space are realized not at the wavelength level, but at the level of frequencies and angles of twist of the polarization modes.
Thus, at this and subsequent levels, the nonlocality takes on its dualistic material-wave nature, as may also be true for the holographic memory of the cerebral cortex [ Pribram 1991; Schempp 1992; 1993; Marcer, Schempp 1997; 1998]
A well known fact can therefore be seen in new light, namely, that the information biomacromolecules - DNA, RNA and proteins - have an outspoken capacity to optical rotatory dispersion of visible light and of circular dichroism.
This biocomputer will be based on new understanding of the higher forms of the DNA memory, and the chromosome apparatus, as the recording, storaging, transducing and transmitting system for genetic information, that must be considered simultaneously both at the level of matter and at the level of physical fields.
the Fourier-spectra of the radiowaves of crystals, water, metals, DNA, etc) are stored for definite but varying times by means of laser mirrors, such that the "mirror spectra" concern chaotic attractors with a complex dynamic fractal dynamics, recurring in time. of objects.
The latter fields, having been just studied, as showed experimentally in this research, are carriers of genetic and general regulative information, operating on a continuum of genetic molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins, etc).
Here, the main information channel, at least in regard to DNA, is the parameter of polarization, which is nonlocal and is the same for both photons and the radio waves.
Here, previously unknown types of memory (soliton, holographic, polarization) and also the DNA molecule, work both as biolasers and as a recording environment for these laser signals.