Sixty three nucleotides are required for synthesising the A chain and ninety for the B chain, plus a codon at the end of each chain,signalling the termination of protein synthesis.
There are four different nitrogen bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. The synthesis of a particular protein such as insulin is determined by the sequence in which these bases are repeated (see fig.
T1 - The non-canonical protein binding site at the monomer-monomer interface of yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulates the Rev1-PCNA interaction and Polζ/Rev1-dependent translesion DNA synthesis
Subsequently, during DNA damage checkpoint silencing, a process required to allow cell cycle reentry, eEF2K was degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through the ubiquitin ligase SCF(betaTrCP) (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein, beta-transducin repeat-containing protein) to enable rapid resumption of translation elongation.
Practical use of Recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin requires millions of copies of the bacteria whose plasmid has been combined with the insulin gene in order to yield insulin.