Below are things that plants need for photosynthesis:
Carbon dioxide (A colorless, naturally occurring odorless gas found in the air we breathe. It has a scientific symbol CO2. CO2 is produced by burning carbon and organic compounds. It is also produced when plants and animals breathe out during respiration)
Light (Even though both natural and artificial light is OK for plants, natural sunlight is usually great for photosynthesis because they have other natural UV properties that help the plant)
Chlorophyll (This is the green pigment found in the leaves of plants)
Nutrients and minerals (Chemicals and organic compounds which the plant roots absorb from the soil)
Liverworts and hornworts are like mosses in the fundamental features of their life cycle, but differ greatly in organization of their mature gametophytes and sporophytes. Liverwort gametophytes can be either leafy shoots or flattened thalli. In the leafy forms, the leaves are arranged on the stem in one ventral and two lateral rows or ranks, rather than in spirals like the mosses. The leaves are one cell layer thick throughout, never have a midvein and are usually divided into two or more parts called lobes. The ventral leaves, which actually lie against the substrate, are usually much smaller than the lateral leaves and are hidden by the stem. Anchoring rhizoids, which arise near the ventral leaves, are colorless and unicellular. The flattened ribbon-like to leaf-like thallus of the thallose liverworts can be either simple or structurally differentiated into a system of dorsal air chambers and ventral storage tissues. In the latter type, the dorsal epidermis of the thallus is punctuated with scattered pores that open into the air chambers. Liverworts synthesize a vast array of volatile oils, which they store in unique organelles called oil bodies. These compounds impart an often spicy aroma to the plants and seem to discourage animals from feeding on them. Many of these compounds have potential as antimicrobial or anticancer pharmecuticals.
Ponds are among the richest and the most interesting natural environments to observe. Tomake a pond it is sufficient to have a garden or, a meadow or a wood near your home. It isnot necessary to be large, a square meter (9 square feet) of surface is sufficient, buttwo(18 sq. ft.) are better. Find a shady position in the garden. Dig a hole of about 2square meters, 50 cm(2 feet) deep. At least one side, the border has to gently slope downto allow to little animals to enter and leave, for hedgehogs and opossums to drink and tobirds to bath without being too deep. Put some sand in the bottom. Leave the grass on theside. Bare roots are okay. Waterproof the hole with a tarpaulin of white PVC. Why white?Because you can see aquatic animals better when they come near the shore. Cover the borderof the tarpaulin with the grass sod. Allow the tarpaulin to extend for at least 40 cm (16inches) beyond the sloping shore. In this position you can keep the water in such a way tocreate the typical conditions of a marsh. Fill up the pond with tap water and shovel somesand or soil in the bottom: they will benefit the aquatic plants. Go to a natural pond ormarsh and collect some aquatic plants. If it is possible, carry some gallons of water fromthe pond and pour them into your puddle, which will be enriched with microorganisms,algae, and animals, which live in ponds. In few days, your little pond will become greenwith algae and very rich of protozoa. Rapidly dragonflies will come to lay eggs, boatflies, coleoptera and aquatic spiders also will come. In the spring, frogs and newtswill come to lay eggs. The observation of the life in a pond is fascinating. You canremain for hours watching the organisms, which live in this ecosystem. Buy books torecognize the organisms that live in the ponds. See bibliography (5, 6). These texts willalso give you also useful information on the habits of these plants and animals. For anexercise, note your observations in a book, glue pictures, and sketch drawings. Everyyear, during the fall, you should clear out the pond. Shovel out the stinking mud, washthe tarpaulin, or changed it if it leaks, put some tap water, winter rain will supply theremaining part. In spite of what shopkeepers will tell you, your pond does not need pumpsto circulate water, nor aerators, nor falls, nor fountains, nor anything else. The pond isbetter to be as natural as possible. Little ponds of private gardens are very important toamphibians. Avoid introducing fish. They will eat the eggs of the amphibians and thetadpoles. Moreover, the newts will keep the pond free from the mosquito larvae. When thereare tadpoles, your pond will be visited by water snakes, with difficulty you will noticeof them!... and --- don't be frightened: they are harmless!
Multiple Microhabitat Pond Microcosm (good cross section of a pond)
A Large Pond
Building a Pond
"Pond" Cultures of Microscopic Invertebrates
Internet keywords: pond building homemade.
In indoor gardening, it is important to remember thatblue and red light promotes vegetative growth, whereas the red andfar-red light control flowering.Other plant responses besides photosynthesis and flowering whichare governed by light quality are germination of seeds, turning ofleaves, reddening of apples, cessation of shrub growth in the fall,the bending of plants toward light and others.Intensity: Light intensity which is important to photosynthesismay be measured in units called foot-candles and is concerned onlywith visible light.
Variables: The variables that might affect the rate of photosynthesis in this experiment are: Temperature: When the temperature rises so does the rate of photosynthesis; this is because as the temperature around the plant rises the enzymes controlling photosynthesis inside the chloroplasts heat up and start moving around faster, the fast moving molecules collide with other fast moving enzymes causing them to react....
There are four things that are required by the plant before it can carry out photosynthesis, they are light, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water ....