Assignments got your hair on fire?

Douse the flames with our full-range writing service!

Experienced academic writing professionals are at your fingertips. Use this handy tool to get a price estimate for your project.

Dual methylation pathways in lignin …

14. Ye, Z.-H., Kneusel, R.E., Matern, U., and Varner, J.E. (1994). An alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia. Plant Cell 6, 1427-1439.

The AC element sequences uncovered in the lignin biosynthetic genes are similar to the binding site (CCT/AACC) identified through binding site selection for the maize MYB protein P. In addition, the Antirrhinum MYB305 was found to be able to bind to the AC elements and activate the expression of the AC element-containing bean PAL2 promoter-driven reporter gene., Therefore, it was reasoned that transcription factors that bind to the AC elements in lignin biosynthetic genes are also MYB proteins. The first line of genetic evidence on the possible involvement of MYBs in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis came from the study of two MYB proteins, AmMYB308 and AmMYB330, from Antirrhinum (). Overexpression of the Antirrhinum MYB proteins in transgenic tobacco plants caused a reduction in the expression of several lignin biosynthetic genes and a decrease in lignin content, suggesting that the Antirrhinum MYBs are able to regulate the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes and thereby affect lignin biosynthesis. Since then, several MYBs from Arabidopsis and grapes have been shown to alter the expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and lignin biosynthesis when overexpressed. However, none of these MYBs have been proven to bind to the AC elements, nor have they been demonstrated to be expressed in lignifying tissues. The latter is especially important because developmental regulators of lignin biosynthetic genes should be expressed in cells undergoing lignification. Thus, it is uncertain whether these MYBs are indeed regulators of lignin biosynthesis or their effects on lignin biosynthesis observed in the overexpressors are indirect. In fact, one of these MYBs, PAP1, has been demonstrated to be a regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and the increased accumulation of lignin caused by PAP1 overexpression is due to the elevation of the common hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters shared by the biosynthetic pathways of both lignin and anthocyanin.

Dual methylation pathways in lignin biosynthesis: Li et al

(1998) Dual methylation pathways in lignin biosynthesis

[31 x Dual methylation pathways in lignin biosynthesis

The AC element sequences uncovered in the lignin biosynthetic genes are similar to the binding site (CCT/AACC) identified through binding site selection for the maize MYB protein P. In addition, the Antirrhinum MYB305 was found to be able to bind to the AC elements and activate the expression of the AC element-containing bean PAL2 promoter-driven reporter gene., Therefore, it was reasoned that transcription factors that bind to the AC elements in lignin biosynthetic genes are also MYB proteins. The first line of genetic evidence on the possible involvement of MYBs in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis came from the study of two MYB proteins, AmMYB308 and AmMYB330, from Antirrhinum (). Overexpression of the Antirrhinum MYB proteins in transgenic tobacco plants caused a reduction in the expression of several lignin biosynthetic genes and a decrease in lignin content, suggesting that the Antirrhinum MYBs are able to regulate the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes and thereby affect lignin biosynthesis. Since then, several MYBs from Arabidopsis and grapes have been shown to alter the expression of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and lignin biosynthesis when overexpressed. However, none of these MYBs have been proven to bind to the AC elements, nor have they been demonstrated to be expressed in lignifying tissues. The latter is especially important because developmental regulators of lignin biosynthetic genes should be expressed in cells undergoing lignification. Thus, it is uncertain whether these MYBs are indeed regulators of lignin biosynthesis or their effects on lignin biosynthesis observed in the overexpressors are indirect. In fact, one of these MYBs, PAP1, has been demonstrated to be a regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and the increased accumulation of lignin caused by PAP1 overexpression is due to the elevation of the common hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters shared by the biosynthetic pathways of both lignin and anthocyanin.

23. Zhong, R., Morrison, W.H., Negrel, J., and Ye, Z.-H. (1998). Dual methylation pathways in lignin biosynthesis. Plant Cell 10, 2033-2045 (PDF).

methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis ..

To make lignin, it is conceivable that all the genes involved in the biosynthesis, transport and oxidation of monolignols need to be coordinately expressed. Dissection of the molecular switches controlling the coordinated activation of lignin biosynthetic genes is of importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific deposition of lignin. Currently, little is known about the signals and the master transcription factors that coordinate the activation of the entire lignin biosynthetic pathway. Identification of the molecular switches controlling lignin biosynthesis could allow us to alter the lignin biosynthetic program and thereby genetically engineer trees and biomass crops with altered lignin content.

An alternative methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia.

Lignin is a complex phenylpropanoid polymer formed through dehydrogenative polymerization of three monolignols, including p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Lignin from gymnosperms is composed of guaiacyl unit polymerized from coniferyl alcohol, whereas that from angiosperms typically consists of both guaiacyl and syringyl units polymerized from coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, respectively. Lignin from grasses also contains p-hydroxyphenyl unit polymerized from p-coumaryl alcohol in addition to guaiacyl and syringyl units. The biosynthetic pathway of monolignols starts with the general phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the production of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters, which are the common precursors of diverse groups of chemical compounds, such as flavonoids, suberin, coumarins, quinones, phytoalexins, acetosyringone and lignin. For production of monolignols, two successive reductive steps catalyzed by cinnamoyl CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase convert hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters into the three monolignols. Monolignols are then transported, via an unknown mechanism, into the cell wall, where they are oxidized by oxidases such as peroxidases and laccases for polymerization.

Versatile Services that Make Studying Easy
We write effective, thought-provoking essays from scratch
We create erudite academic research papers
We champion seasoned experts for dissertations
We make it our business to construct successful business papers
What if the quality isn’t so great?
Our writers are sourced from experts, and complete an obstacle course of testing to join our brigade. Ours is a top service in the English-speaking world.
How do I know the professor won’t find out?
Everything is confidential. So you know your student paper is wholly yours, we use CopyScape and WriteCheck to guarantee originality (never TurnItIn, which professors patrol).
What if it doesn’t meet my expectations?
Unchanged instructions afford you 10 days to request edits after our agreed due date. With 94% satisfaction, we work until your hair is comfortably cool.
Clients enjoy the breezy experience of working with us
Click to learn our proven method

“Dual Methylation Pathways in Lignin ..


implicated in a dual methylation pathway associated with lignin ..

Lignin is a complex phenylpropanoid polymer formed through dehydrogenative polymerization of three monolignols, including p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Lignin from gymnosperms is composed of guaiacyl unit polymerized from coniferyl alcohol, whereas that from angiosperms typically consists of both guaiacyl and syringyl units polymerized from coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, respectively. Lignin from grasses also contains p-hydroxyphenyl unit polymerized from p-coumaryl alcohol in addition to guaiacyl and syringyl units. The biosynthetic pathway of monolignols starts with the general phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the production of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters, which are the common precursors of diverse groups of chemical compounds, such as flavonoids, suberin, coumarins, quinones, phytoalexins, acetosyringone and lignin. For production of monolignols, two successive reductive steps catalyzed by cinnamoyl CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase convert hydroxycinnamoyl CoA esters into the three monolignols. Monolignols are then transported, via an unknown mechanism, into the cell wall, where they are oxidized by oxidases such as peroxidases and laccases for polymerization.

Physiology of citrus fruiting - SciELO

To make lignin, it is conceivable that all the genes involved in the biosynthesis, transport and oxidation of monolignols need to be coordinately expressed. Dissection of the molecular switches controlling the coordinated activation of lignin biosynthetic genes is of importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific deposition of lignin. Currently, little is known about the signals and the master transcription factors that coordinate the activation of the entire lignin biosynthetic pathway. Identification of the molecular switches controlling lignin biosynthesis could allow us to alter the lignin biosynthetic program and thereby genetically engineer trees and biomass crops with altered lignin content.

89%
of clients claim significantly improved grades thanks to our work.
98%
of students agree they have more time for other things thanks to us.
Clients Speak
“I didn’t expect I’d be thanking you for actually improving my own writing, but I am. You’re like a second professor!”