The concentrations in air, water and soil used for an exposure assessment are those measured or estimated to be available in these environmental media at the nearest receptor point to the source (e.g., soil or groundwater at a hazardous waste site).
Air sampling methods for inorganic gases Carbon monoxide Manufacturer Comments Application Continuous Electrochemical Energetic Sciences 0-50, 0-100 ppm; portable and personal; environmental/personal LOD ~ 2 ppm Interscan Various ranges; LOD ~ 1 ppm environmental Bacharah Based on the measurement of Hg vapour environmental from a pellet oxidized by CO.
Results from the human model were compared with data on total metabolized parent and exhaled chloroform reported by Fry et al. (1972), where chloroform was administered, in olive oil or gelatin capsules, to male and female volunteers. Exhaled chloroform was measured for up to 8 h following dosing, and the total percentage of the dose exhaled unchanged was calculated by extrapolation to infinite time. Human model simulations conducted using a single-compartment description of oral uptake were closer to the observations of Fry et al. (1972) than those estimated using a multi-compartment description. Therefore, while a multi-compartment description was necessary in the rat model, a single-compartment description of oral uptake was used in estimating human-equivalent concentrations (Environment Canada & Health Canada, 2001). The model was also modified to permit assessment of exposure to chloroform from all likely sources, including air, water, and food. The exposure scenario (see section 11.1.3) was modelled within a 24-h day and included inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure from one 10-min shower, a brief washing-up period before retiring at night, discrete periods of food and water consumption, and inhalation of chloroform at various concentrations (ICF Kaiser, 1999; Environment Canada & Health Canada, 2001).
A mentoring program using working professionals selected by the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Each participant meets at least once a month with a mentor who provides information on practices and skills necessary to succeed in the workplace. Course participants review business ethics statements provided by the mentor's company or other companies and write a critique based on materials from professional business ethics organizations such as the International Business Ethics Institute. Prerequisite or concurrent enrollment .
Assessments are often not at exposure or exposure concentration, since that information alone is not very useful unless it is converted to dose or risk.
The 1991 Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context sets out a framework for neighbourly relations. It extends the EIA concept, developed to date exclusively in the context of national planning laws and procedures, to the transboundary impacts of development projects and related procedures and decisions.
1.2.4 Exposure in the context of an environmental health paradigm The presence of hazardous substances in our environment does not necessarily imply a risk to human health or to the ecosystem.
1.3 Elements of exposure assessment Assessing human exposure to an environmental agent involves the qualitative description and the quantitative estimation of the agent's contact with (exposure) and entry into (dose) the body.
Basic information needed for exposure assessments in different contexts Information required Risk assessment Point estimates or distributions of exposure and dose Duration of exposure and dose Risk management Pollutant source contributing to (conducted once hazard exposure and dose is identified) Personal activities contributing to exposure and dose Effectiveness of intervention measures Status and trend Change of exposure and dose of populations over time Epidemiology Individual and population exposures and doses, exposure dose categories 1.4 Approaches to quantitative exposure assessment Quantitative estimation of exposure is often the central feature of assessment activities.
Required of all students in the University Honors College. During the senior year, the student must complete a thesis or project under the direction of a faculty member in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department.
The quantitative estimation of exposure can be approached in two general ways: direct assessment, including point-of-contact measurements and biological indicators of exposure; and indirect assessment, including environmental monitoring, modelling, questionnaires (US NRC, 1991b) (see Chapter 3.5).
Although exposure is a well-established concept familiar to all environmental health scientists, its meaning often varies depending on the context of the discussion.
The term used as the title of this article, environmental impact assessments, has now been increasingly, but not universally, replaced with the term environmental assessments. A quick review of the reason for this change of name will help us define the essential nature of the activity described by these names, and one of the important factors behind opposition or reluctance to using the word impact.
The word impact, in English, unfortunately is not a positive term. An impact is thought to be harmful (almost by definition). Therefore, as the practice of EIA spread beyond the United States to Canada, Europe, Southeast Asia and Australasia, many governments and their advisers wanted to move away from the negative aspects of impact, and so the term environmental assessment (EA) was born. EIA and EA are identical (except in the United States and those few countries which have adopted the US system, where EIA and EA have precise and different meanings). In this article only EIA will be referred to, although it should be remembered that all comments apply equally to EA, and both terms are in use internationally.