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ATP synthase - Biology-Online Dictionary

This modification generates a new compound, able to be transformed metabolically or chemically, the resulting compound being the active principle.Biotransformation is the chemical conversion of substances by living organisms or preparations.See Computer-assisted drug design.A carrier-linked prodrug is a that contains a temporary linkage of a given active substance with a transient carrier group that produces improved physicochemical or pharmacokinetic properties and that can be easily removed , usually by a hydrolytic cleavage.A cascade prodrug is a for which the cleavage of the carrier group becomes effective only after unmasking an activating group.Catabolism consists of reactions involving endogenous organic substrates to provide chemically available energy (e.g., ATP) and/or to generate metabolic intermediates used in subsequent anabolic reactions.A catabolite is a naturally occurring .A clone is a population of genetically identical cells produced from a common ancestor.

This makes ATP a relatively unstable molecule because it will want to give away its phosphate groups, when given the chance, in order to become a more stable molecule.

ATP synthase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Synthesis of (2'-5')(A)n from ATP

Under standard conditions the ΔG is:But inside a living cell, typical concentrations of the reactants are [ATP]=10mM, [ADP]=1mM and [Pi]=10mM.

It was believed that CphA requires -aspartic acid (Asp), -arginine (Arg), ATP, Mg2+, and a primer (low-molecular mass cyanophycin) for cyanophycin synthesis and catalyzes the elongation of a low-molecular mass cyanophycin.


The new pathway/mechanism created by the enzyme which has a lower activation energy, allows a greater fraction of molecules to possess the minimum required energy and the reaction rate increases.
Frequency of effective collisions increases hence the rate of reaction increases.
Rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends on the concentrations of enzyme and substrate
As concentration of either is increased, the rate of reaction increases.
For a given enzyme concentration, the rate of reaction increases with increasing substrate concentration up to a point, above which any further increase in substrate concentration produces no significant change in reaction rate.
This is because the active sites of the enzyme molecules at any given moment are virtually saturated with substrate.

structure and mechanism of ATP synthase - Nilesh

AB - We have recently discovered an activator for phosphofructokinase termed "activation factor" (Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 5861-5864). In this paper, we investigated the enzyme responsible for its synthesis. We have found an enzyme from rat liver which catalyzes the formation of activation factor from fructose-6-P and ATP-Mg and it has been identified as fructose-2,6-P2. Fructose-1,6-P2, fructose-1-P, or fructose does not serve as a substrate. This enzyme has been partially purified and shown to be different from phosphofructokinase. Several lines of evidence indicate that the in vitro synthetic product is identical with chemically synthesized fructose-2,6-P2: (a) it is active in our assay for activation factor which is based on counteraction of ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase; (b) it is acid labile as is fructose-2,6-P2; and (c) it shows the same mobility as synthetic fructose-2,6-P2 upon paper chromatography and the acid hydrolysis product has been identified as fructose-6-P. Thus, this new enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of the activation factor from fructose-6-P and ATP-Mg.



Rotation goes further, Gamma subunit turns another 120 degrees forcing the next site into the opened conformation, and the ADP and phosphate bound to the previous opened active site are occluded and ATP synthesis takes place.

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and the newly synthesized ATP leaves the enzyme surface.


How does ATP synthase produce ATP ..


The ATP molecule formed is released when the Gamma subunit makes one 360 degrees turn and once again opens the site.
Synthesis of ATP
Through this mechanism, using the driving force of protonic ions, the enzyme rapidly catalyzes the synthesis of ATP fro ADP and Pi, hence lowering the Ea by using less energy.

catalyzes the synthesis of cAMP from ATP

N2 - We have recently discovered an activator for phosphofructokinase termed "activation factor" (Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 5861-5864). In this paper, we investigated the enzyme responsible for its synthesis. We have found an enzyme from rat liver which catalyzes the formation of activation factor from fructose-6-P and ATP-Mg and it has been identified as fructose-2,6-P2. Fructose-1,6-P2, fructose-1-P, or fructose does not serve as a substrate. This enzyme has been partially purified and shown to be different from phosphofructokinase. Several lines of evidence indicate that the in vitro synthetic product is identical with chemically synthesized fructose-2,6-P2: (a) it is active in our assay for activation factor which is based on counteraction of ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase; (b) it is acid labile as is fructose-2,6-P2; and (c) it shows the same mobility as synthetic fructose-2,6-P2 upon paper chromatography and the acid hydrolysis product has been identified as fructose-6-P. Thus, this new enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of the activation factor from fructose-6-P and ATP-Mg.

ATP & ATP Synthase Organizer by Hasan Baig on Prezi

This bringsus to the end of the first phase of glycolysis, where a molecule of glucose hasproduced two molecules of glyceraldehde-3-phosphte, at the cost of two ATPmolecules.

ATP & ATP Synthase Organizer


Hydrolysis of ATP
Applications of ATP
ADP + Pi + Energy → ATP
Animals
Plants
photosynthesis
cellular respiration
aerobic
photophosphorylation
electron transport chain
The change in Gibbs free energy in the reaction is used to assess the energy yield of such reactions, and as a general indicator of the spontaneity of reactions.

with ATP to form amino acid AMP complex and pyrophosphate

Under these conditions the free energy change is:
ATP is an unstable molecule which hydrolyzes to ADP and inorganic phosphate when it is in equilibrium with water.

ATP Synthase: A Molecular Motor - Biology Pages

We have recently discovered an activator for phosphofructokinase termed "activation factor" (Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 5861-5864). In this paper, we investigated the enzyme responsible for its synthesis. We have found an enzyme from rat liver which catalyzes the formation of activation factor from fructose-6-P and ATP-Mg and it has been identified as fructose-2,6-P2. Fructose-1,6-P2, fructose-1-P, or fructose does not serve as a substrate. This enzyme has been partially purified and shown to be different from phosphofructokinase. Several lines of evidence indicate that the in vitro synthetic product is identical with chemically synthesized fructose-2,6-P2: (a) it is active in our assay for activation factor which is based on counteraction of ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase; (b) it is acid labile as is fructose-2,6-P2; and (c) it shows the same mobility as synthetic fructose-2,6-P2 upon paper chromatography and the acid hydrolysis product has been identified as fructose-6-P. Thus, this new enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of the activation factor from fructose-6-P and ATP-Mg.

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