The biodegradation of polyethylene is known to occur by either Hydro-biodegradation and Oxo-biodegradation. These two mechanisms can be used because of two additives, starch and pro-oxidant, used in the synthesis of biodegradable polyethylene. Starch blended polyethylene has a continuous starch phase that makes the material hydrophilic, and therefore allows it to be catalyzed by amylase enzymes. Microorganisms can easily access, attack and remove this section, thus the polyethylene with the hydrophilic matrix continues to be hydro-biodegraded. If a pro-oxidant additive was used, biodegradation occurs following photodegradation and chemical degradation. If the pro-oxidant is a metal compound, after transition-metal catalyzed thermal peroxidation, biodegradation of low molecular weight oxidation products occurs sequentially . The process is depicted in .
The term “ketosis” simply means the state in which, in the absence of sufficient glucose, our liver synthesizes ketones from acetyl coenzyme A.
However, even on a no carb, all meat, high-fat diet, we will still be consuming some glucose in the form of glycogen stored in muscle and organ meats, and our livers will continue to convert some dietary amino acids into glucose, so blood sugar levels never hit zero on such a diet.
Gamma Glutamyltransferase: GGT – This enzyme is has its highest concentration in the kidneys and pancreas, but it is also found in the liver and other organs. The major proportion of GGT in the serum seems to come from the liver. Elevations of GGT in disease seem to stem from new synthesis rather than leakage, therefore the changes seen due to disease are not spectacular. Large elevations of GGT are more commonly associated with pancreatitis and bile duct obstruction.