Fluconazole is an active agent against yeasts, yeasts like fungi and dimorphic fungi, with possible drawback of itching in topical therapy. Microsponges were prepared by liquid-liquid suspension polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate 52.
The entrapped dimethicone of microsponge 5700. Dimethicone is a blend of 78% 350 cst(centistokes) polydimethylsiloxane and 22% 1000 cst polydimethylsiloxane 51.
recruited for participation in this study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: all subjects were between the ages of 18 and 70, had an amputation without serious complications, and had at least 6 months experience using a definitive prosthesis. Subjects with concurrent medical issues or who were prescribed medication that could significantly interfere with balance or gait were excluded from the study. Additionally, subjects had to be able to safely walk at least 10 m over level ground without the use of an assistive device.
prosthetic gel liners–a thin 3 mm liner and a thick 9 mm liner–were tested as subjects walked at a self-selected walking speed. Both liners were of uniform thickness and had a small umbrella on the distal end that provided a somewhat more rigid interface for the shuttle-lock pin. The –uniform– version of the 9 mm liner included thinning of the posterior wall behind the knee to permit knee flexion. Pressure sensors were placed over five anatomical locations on the residual limb. These sensors were labeled as follows: patellar tendon sensor (sPT), distal anterior tibia sensor (sDT), distal end of the tibia sensor (sDE), fibular head sensor (sFH), and medial gastrocnemius sensor (sMG). The locations of the pressure sensors on the residual limb are shown in . The locations of the sFH, sPT, and sDE were determined through palpation of the fibular head, patellar tendon, and distal end of the tibia, respectively, and the center of the sensor array was placed directly over the landmark. The sMG was large enough to encompass almost the entire posterior aspect of the residual limb. The distal anterior tibia pressure was recorded by placing a sensor array across the tibia immediately distal to the sPT. The sensor arrays were positioned by the same investigator for all data collections to provide consistency between data collection sessions and subjects. The sensor array sizes were 6.0 ?? 3.0 cm (sPT, sDT, sFH), 2.0 ?? 2.0 cm (sDE), and 15.0 ?? 6.0 cm (sMG); the sensors had an individual surface area of 1.0 cm, had a thickness of 1.0 mm, and were coated in thermoplastic polyurethane film. The tape used to secure the sensors onto the residual limb was 3M Micropore paper tape (3M; St. Paul, Minnesota) with a thickness of 0.12 mm. All data collection occurred in the Jesse Brown Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center (JBVAMC) Motion Analysis Research Laboratory (MARL), which is equipped with an eight-camera Eagle Digital RealTime system (Motion Analysis Corporation; Santa Rosa, California), six force platforms (AMTI; Watertown, Massachusetts), and a Novel pliance pressure sensor system (Novel Electronics; Munich, Germany).
Chances are you have heard about teeth whitening and bleaching, but have you heard about gum bleaching? This unique procedure allows you to change or improve the natural colour of the gum tissues surrounding your teeth. The end results give you gums that look perfectly healthy and have a natural coral colour across your entire smile. At Chrysalis Dental Centres, our Periodontist, Dr. Phil Walton, has been performing this procedure for quite some time. The clinical term for this procedure is Gum Depigmentation but it also known as Gum Bleaching, Gum Lightening, and Gum Whitening.
Going the natural way using a Functional Active: Although natural actives are important consumer attractants, now the focus has shifted on using multifunctional natural ingredients. For example, Marinosomes®, liposomes made from natural anti-inflammatory lipid extracts, have set a new paradigm in using such functional 'active excipients'. The possibility of using such substances for constructing a microsponge structure appears to be cost effective and innovative.
Marketed Formulations: Microsponge delivery systems are used for topical prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) and personal care products. Products under development or in the marketplace utilize the topical microsponge system in three primary ways 69 (The marketed products are shown in table 2).
A biodegradable graft material containing the collagen microsponge was developed for cardiovascular tissue grafting, as it would permit the regeneration of the autologous vessel tissue 66. A thin biodegradable hybrid mesh synthetic poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and naturally derived collagen was for a three-dimensional culture of human skin fibroblasts. The hybrid mesh was constructed by forming web like collagen microsponges in the openings of a PLGA-knitted mesh 67. A tissue engineered patch made of our biodegradable polymer and collagen Microsponge provided good in situ regeneration at both the venous and arterial wall, suggesting this patch could be used as a novel surgical material for the repair of the cardiovascular system 68.
The fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporated in a collagen sponge sheet was sustained release in the mouse subcutis according to the biodegradation of the sponge matrix, and exhibited local angiogenic activity in a dose dependent manner. Intra muscular injection of collagen microsponges incorporating bFGF, induced a significant increase in the blood flow, in the murine ischemic hind limb, which could never have been attained by the bolus injection of bFGF. These results suggest the significance and therapeutic utility of the type collagen reservoir of bFGF 65.
Microsponge based Delivery System for Bio-Pharmaceuticals: The MDS is used for the delivery of biopharmaceuticals and in tissue engineering also. Newton D.W. has overviewed tissue targeted biopharmaceuticals delivery through microsponges 62. Bone-substitute compounds were obtained by mixing pre-polymerized powders of polymethyl-methacrylate and liquid methylmethacrylate monomer with two aqueous dispersions of a-tri calcium phosphate (a-TCP) grains and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) powders. The final composites appeared to be porous and acted as microsponges 63, 64.
Dicyclomine loaded, Eudrdagit based microsponges were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. Kinetic analysis showed that the main mechanism of drug release was by Higuchi matrix controlled diffusion. Drug release was biphasic with an initial burst effect with 16%-30% of drug released in the first hour. Cumulative release for microsponges over 8 hours ranged from 59%-86% 59. Paracetamol loaded Eudragit RS 100 based microsponges were prepared using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method, then the colon specific tablets were prepared by compressing the microsponges followed by coating with pectin: hydroxypropylmethylcellulose mixture. In-vitro release studies exhibited that compression coated colon specific tablet formulations started releasing the drug at 6th hour corresponding to the arrival time at proximal colon 60, 61.
In-vitro studies exhibited that compression coated colon specific tablet formulations started to release the drug at the 8th hour corresponding to the proximal colon arrival time due to the addition of enzyme, following a modified release pattern while the drug release from the colon specific formulations prepared by pore plugging the microsponges showed an increase at the 8th hour which was the time point that the enzyme addition made 58.