Coral reefs are among the most beautiful ecosystems in the world but are also among the most susceptible to human impacts and are damaged or destroyed with alarming ease. Practices such as over-fishing, the use of dynamite or poison to capture fish and dropping boat anchors on corals have produced enormous damage. Even an accidental touch from divers and snorkelers can significantly damage the delicate coral polyps. Pollution, silting from land-based construction, and fertilizer runoff have led to damage to coral reefs worldwide by blocking the sunlight corals require for photosynthesis by their symbiotic algae. Rising sea temperatures from global warming can also destroy corals by ending the symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae. Hurricanes and earthquakes, which can also lead to significant damage to the reefs, are nonetheless generally viewed as a natural cycle of the ecosystem. However, when a coral reef has been damaged from human effects, it may have a more difficult time recovering from natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes.
A coral polyp consists primarily of tentacles, a mouth and a gut (think upside down jellyfish). Many corals are passive feeders on plankton. Most corals also get nutrition from microscopic algae (zooxanthellae) living within their tissue. Coral polyps are generally nocturnal feeders and are provided sugars made by their photosynthetic zooxanthellae during the day.
Using mathematical modeling, this title describes processes from the biophysics of the interaction of light with pigment systems to the mutual interaction of individual plants and other organisms in canopies and large ecosystems, up to the global ecosystem issues
A Modeling AnalysisRole of Photosynthetic Induction for Daily and Annual Carbon Gains of Leaves and Plant Canopies; Photosynthesis Within Large-Scale Ecosystem Models; Photosynthesis in Global-Scale Models
The continuing emission of a number of gases into theatmosphere from human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is nowthought likely to alter the global climate in the years ahead, aconsequence arising from the greenhouse effect (). Worldwide changes in rainfalldistribution are expected, including drying of some continentalinteriors as well as possible increases in climatic variability.
My astronaut colleague investigated the UFO phenomenon early in his adventures on the and immediately after refusing an "offer" to perform classified UFO research for the American military. It became evident that the UFO and free energy issues were conjoined. A faction of the global elite to a close fellow traveler, which included free energy and antigravity technologies. My astronaut colleague was involved with the that some around me were, who invented a solid-state free energy prototype that not only produced a million times the energy that went into it, but it . I eventually understood the larger context of our efforts and encountered numerous fellow travelers; they reported similar experiences, of having their technologies seized or otherwise suppressed, of being incarcerated and/or surviving murder attempts, and other outrages inflicted by global elites as they maintained their tyrannical grip over the world economy and, hence, humanity. It was no conspiracy theory, but what my fellow travelers and I learned at great personal cost, which was regularly fatal.
If forests are destroyed by the means of logging or burning, their carbon is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide which is a climate changing greenhouse gas. Global deforestation contributes 20% of the carbon dioxide emissions. Nearly 300 Million tons of carbon which is roughly 40 times the annual greenhouse gas emissions comes from fossil fuels. Forests are responsible for regulating the earth’s climate because they store nearly 300 Billion tons of carbon.
This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role. The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training. I am trying to in a tiny fraction of the global population. . My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus. Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles. That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood. I have seen too many wrecked and prematurely ended lives (, ) and plan to avoid those fates, for both myself and the group’s members.
Show this guide and the report of your research to your teacher.
Environmental Defense, Recycling
Recycling - At School
Recycling Obscure Materials
Global Recycling Network
The Internet Consumer Recycling Guide
Internet keywords: recycling.
In nature, the remains of dead organisms, that is vegetable and animal tissues, become thefood of other organisms like little mammalians, insects, protists, plants, mushrooms, andbacteria.
The destruction and the deforestation of forest land that is caused mainly by expanded agricultural activity in the tropical developing countries are accountable for roughly 12% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The use of electricity and heat is responsible for 25% of global GHG emissions. 25 countries, most of which are developing countries in the tropics accounted for 95% of all forest based emissions from 1990 to 2005.
Test the fluorescent emission from them.
Extraction of Chlorophyll and its Fluorescence
Light Dependence of Photosynthesis in Sun and Shade Plants
Algal Pigments (method of extraction and Rf of photosynthetic pigments ofalgae)
Internet keywords: chlorophyll extraction leaf mortar
Chromatography is a method of separation of substances based on their different mobilityin a given stationary support.
Some bacteria use Photosystem I and some use Photosystem II. More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. were then used to strip electrons from water. Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis. It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis. Water is not an easy molecule to strip an electron from, a single cyanobacterium seems to have “stumbled” into it, and it probably happened only . Once an electron was stripped away from water in Photosystem I, then stripping away a proton (a hydrogen nucleus) essentially removed one hydrogen atom from the water molecule. That proton was then used to drive a “turbine” that manufactures ATP, and wonderful show how those protons drive that enzyme turbine (). Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory.