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Formaldehyde reacts with macromolecules, including DNA.

Marzulli & Maibach (1973) reported that one of 5 sen-sitized volunteers reacted, under controlled conditions, to a challengeconcentration of 0.01% formaldehyde.

Patch-test studies with differentconcentrations of formaldehyde have shown that concentrations below0.05% rarely elicit an allergic reaction, even in sensitive individuals(Schulz, 1983).

Photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals rapidly removeformaldehyde from the atmosphere.

(1945) The reactions of formaldehyde withamino acids and proteins.

Formaldehyde that escapes metabolism can react withmacromolecules at the site of entry.

Formaldehyde solution is a primary skin-sensitizing agent inducingallergic contact dermatitis (Type IV, T-cell mediated delayed hypersen-sitivity reaction); it may induce immunological contact urticaria(Type I, perhaps IgE mediated, immediate hypersensitivity reaction).

Patch tests performed with formaldehyde challenge concentrations of1% or less resulted in positive reactions in about 2% of all patientstested throughout the world; higher formaldehyde challenge concen-trations may be irritant (Anon., 1987).

(1961) The reaction of formaldehyde withpolynucleotides.

There is no evidence in the literature of allergic reactivity ofthe mucous membranes of the eyes being caused by airborne formaldehydeor by formaldehyde solutions.

Irritant skin reactions occur through direct contact with formal-dehyde solutions.

An allergic contact dermatitis reaction was provoked by a dose offormaldehyde of 0.25 µg/cm2 skin (challenge dose: 50 µg/cm2 with0.5% percutaneous penetration).

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Mechanism of the initial reaction of formaldehydewith DNA.

(1979) Reaction of formal-dehyde with calf-thymus nucleohistone.

It has been shown that sensory irritation is the earliest humanreaction to formaldehyde, both in exposure studies and from complaintsabout indoor environments.

Hantzsch Dihydropyridine (Pyridine) Synthesis

Since differences in indi-vidual reactions to formaldehyde are large in both the normal popu-lation and in hyperreactive and sensitized persons, it is difficult toestimate a concentration guaranteed not to produce negative reactionsin the general population.

Hantzsch pyridine synthesis - Wikipedia

8.7.1 Reactions with macromolecules Formaldehyde reacts readily with a variety of cellular nucleo-philes, including glutathione, forming adducts of varying stability(Feldman, 1973; Uotila & Koivusalo, 1974; McGhee & von Hippel, 1975).

Hantzsch pyridine synthesis - overview - ChemTube3D

In the exposure chamber, a bis-chloromethyl-ether (BCME) concentration of 0.5-2 µg/m3, due to the chemicalreaction of formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride, was estimated.

Hantzsch Dihydropyridine Synthesis

Allergic reactions to cosmetics containing formaldehyde as a pre-servative, especially shampoos, are unusual (Eckardt, 1966) and appearmostly among those who have been sensitized by occupational exposure.

is known as the Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis and the ..

Formaldehyde protects dietary-protein frommicrobial proteolysis in the rumen by reacting with free amino groupsin the protein, forming inter- and intramolecular methylene bridges(Siddons et al., 1982).

Kröhnke pyridine synthesis - Wikipedia

Formaldehyde also reacts with proteins (French & Edsall, 1945) andnucleic acids (Haselkorn & Doty, 1961; Lewin, 1966; Collins & Guild,1968; Feldman, 1973; Chaw et al., 1980); it reacts with single-strandDNA, but not with double-stranded DNA.

Pyridine synthesis - Organic chemistry Systemic sensitization A case report has been described involving an anaphylactic shockreaction after accidental iv application of formaldehyde duringhaemodialysis treatment due to formaldehyde remaining in the equipmentafter disinfection.

mechanism of the hantzsch pyridine synthesis: ..

4.2.1 Special products of degradation under specific conditions Highly carcinogenic bis(chloromethyl)ether can be produced by acondensation reaction between formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride(Thiess et al., 1973; Nelson, 1977; Albert et al., 1982; Sellakumar etal., 1985).

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