Well-aerated plants should have high IAA levels, anoxia treated plants should have low levels. IAA should be mostly made in meristematic cells and much less so as cells mature. IAA should be made when a cell has more than enough oxygen to support both it any cell dependent on it for oxygen acquisition. Thus IAA is always an indication that growth amounts of oxygen are being procured by the plant and if conditions warrant, that the plant has enough oxygen to grow at least in the specific cell where the IAA is. (Shoot cells are responsible for acquiring oxygen for both it and some of the oxygen for a similar size cell in the root. Whereas a root cell is only responsible to itself for it own oxygen level and may even obtain some oxygen from spaces between soil particles).
Should induce ethylene, because IAA up regulates various processes limited by oxygen. Exogenously applying IAA leads the plant to falsely believe that it has high levels of oxygen, thus engaging all sorts of reactions that use O2, thus further depleting what may simply be a homeostatic level of existing O2 and moving this level into the deficiency range.
Photosynthesis is the light-driven process by which carbon dioxide (and/or bicarbonates in aquatic environments) is converted to simple sugars. This process takes place in green plants, algae and (of most interest to reef hobbyists) the dinoflagellates (called zooxanthellae) living within the tissues of many corals. As hobbyists, we want to make certain that our captive corals get enough light to promote photosynthesis and, at the same time, we don’t want to over-light the aquarium either (this results in needlessly high electric bills, unwanted heating of the aquarium, etc.)
is a simple process of flushing packaged foods with inert high purity nitrogen in order to reduce the oxygen level below 1%. Aerobic decay and deterioration caused by oxidisation slows down and results in fresher food both in terms of taste and appearance. The use of nitrogen as a filler gas also provides a pressurised atmosphere that prevents packages from collapsing, and gives a smoother result than vacuum packaging. Nitrogen flushing is not new to the food industry but the widespread use of mini storage tanks to supply the has been inefficient and expensive. This is due to the need for (and cost of) refills and the possibility of production downtime if the refills are late arriving. There are also safety risks associated with the need to manhandle and store the gas cylinders, plus UK suppliers of liquid nitrogen are extremely limited.
The rate of
carbon dioxide produced in a minute will also increase because the
higher the concentration of sugar the more heat energy produced and so
the more the molecules will move around and collide.
If the world is indeed stressful—marked by food scarcity, war, and other physical dangers—the fetus is primed for survival. If instead she grows up with abundant food and mainly psychological aggravations, her higher levels of cortisol raise the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and learning and behavioral difficulties. Note that most of the research on prenatal stress has examined children of women undergoing severe stress—famine, war, or abuse, not the daily hassles most pregnant women face.
Vitamin K1 is a form of vitamin K. It has the chemical name 2-methyl-3phytyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone. It’s compound formula is C31,H46,O2. It is a clear, yellow to amber, viscous liquid that is odorless or almost odorless. It is one of the oil-soluble vitamins found in green plants and prepared synthetically. It is soluble in chloroform, but insoluble in water. It is used as a prothrombinogenic agent. Vitamin K1 was named phylloquinone because it is an indirect product of photosynthesis in plant leaves.
The excited electron may instead be used to provide the reducing power
needed in the second, light-independent stage of the photosynthetic
The impact of the high
dissolved oxygen levels in the hatchery water supplies was decreased with the
installation of degassing structures to remove excessive dissolved oxygen.
Based on my many years of experience and 1000s of aquarium set up and kept for clients, you can have an aquarium that produces enough CO2 via "low tech" methods such as employing filters that do not wear off CO2 (such as the Fluidized Sand Bed) along with use of foods and simple supplements that easily can be qualified as low tech, HOWEVER this still does not mean you can get by with a 15 watt T8 cool white fluorescent lamp on a 20 gallon aquarium for a high light plants.
Dissolved oxygen levels were considerably higher in the American River than
those reported to cause death in hatchery salmonoids due to gas bubble disease.
The implication of this research is that an effective way to support the body's fight against cancer would be to get as much oxygen as you can into healthy cells, and improving their ability to utilize oxygen. Raising the oxygen levels of normal cells would help prevent them from becoming cancerous.
It is not easy to get additional oxygen into cells. Most approaches don't work well. Breathing oxygen is still limited by the amount of hemoglobin available, and pH levels. Dr. Whittaker points out, quite rightly, that liquid oxygen supplements that release oxygen into the blood, which most of them only do, can't get oxygen into the cells.
The beginning aquarist is likely to think that if there's enough light to see then it's enough for plants to grow.
However, that's not true. If you want to grow healthy plants, and not just algae, you need enough light for them to use for photosynthesis and create energy.
It used to be that people advised 3-4 watts per gallon as a VERY basic principle. But, due to modern lighting technology this is now considered an outdated notion (with PAR now more the norm).