One in five people have some kind of knee complaint according to the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and that's probably higher in the weight lifting population.Knee pain can have many causes: IT band issues, osteoarthritis, misalignment, recovering from an ACL injury, etc. Whatever the cause, it can seriously impede your gains.Knee pain also causes improper movement patterns because your body naturally begins to avoid the movements that make it hurt, which causes movement dysfunction which then leads a whole host of other problems.The main building block of all tissues, including your knee, is collagen. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. It's found in skin, hair, muscles and yes, all over your knees.Think of collagen like a scaffold holding everything together. Your body makes some on its own (endogenous collagen), but you can also get it from outside sources (exogenous collagen) like bone broth or collagen supplements.You see, back in the day, we used to get more exogenous collagen by eating the bones and connective tissues of wild game and/or drinking bone broths. Gnawing on bones and slurping broth fell out of fashion for awhile, but both are making a comeback.Don't want to go full Neanderthal, suck on turkey thighs, or brew up your own broth? Well, collagen supplements are widely available and offer many of the same benefits. Supplementing with collagen, namely collagen peptides, helps decrease athletic-related knee pain, usually in about 3 months.One study took 139 athletes with functional knee pain and divided them into two groups. One group took 5 grams of collagen peptides per day and the other took a placebo. They wanted to test the difference in pain intensity during activity pre-and post supplementation. They also noted pain during rest, joint range of motion, and use of additional therapies (i.e. painkillers).The results? The collagen group reported a statistically significant reduction in pain during activity after 3 months, nearly a 40% reduction. The collagen group was also able to decrease the use of other therapies by nearly 60%.While ROM didn't change, it's safe to assume that by reducing knee pain, you'd be able to work on and increase your ROM, unless you have some structural abnormality that simply can't be changed.Collagen peptides can be found at health food stores or bought online. Make sure you get the grass-fed, organic kind. Five grams were used in the study. There are 20 grams in one serving of a leading brand, so you'd be golden getting in at least one serving a day. Many find two servings to be optimum (myself included).Side effects include stronger, thicker hair and nails, and better digestion. Nice.Warning: Collagen does not melt easily in cold liquids (despite what the container says). For best texture, either blend into your or stir into hot drinks. Collagen is also loaded with the amino acid called glycine which can make some people sleepy. If this happens, just take it before bed and get the added benefit of better sleep. As TC Luoma has written, collagen is an incomplete protein. It just doesn't contain all the amino acids necessary for gains, bro. So you're probably better off not counting it toward your daily protein goals.
During training, ATP is burned to fuel muscle contractions, which increases AMP levels. This activates a protein called AMP kinase (AMPK). AMPK reduces protein synthesis by inhibiting mTOR.
More recent studies looking at a more general model for protein synthesis show that insulin + amino acids can have a synergistically positive effect on protein synthesis, causing the greatest mTOR activation together!
Although some studies looking specifically at resistance exercise-induced protein synthesis have shown that the addition of carbs to amino acids doesn't result in an additive effect on protein synthesis when ample amounts of amino acids are ingested, you have to look closely at the experimental model when applying research to the real world.
It would be great if we could simply inhale 1000 grams of protein or amino acids pre, post, or peri-workout, and then grow as much as we want. Unfortunately, this would at best get converted to triglyceride and turned into bodyfat.
In conclusion, the present study provides new andimportant information concerning the mechanisms by which NK4 exertsits anti-angiogenic effects. These mechanisms partly involve thesuppression of VEGF expression in CT26 tumour cells by blocking theactivation of the HGF/c-Met signalling pathway. Furthermore, adetailed analysis of the involvement of intracellular HGF/c-Metsignalling in VEGF expression showed that the PI3K/Akt and MAPKpathways regulated HIF-1α translational activity, whereas the STAT3pathway regulated HIF-1α transcriptional activity and directlyaffected VEGF transcriptional activity. These data thereforesuggest that HGF/c-Met signalling may be a promising target for thefuture development of anti-angiogenic strategies to improveresponse rate and survival in cancer patients.
Eating a high-quality diet with good sources of protein is the best thing to do if you’re looking to gain strength and muscle mass. Lean protein, like lentils, beans, grains, chicken, pork, fish, and lean red meat, are great protein sources. Peanut butter, and other nuts/seeds are also good. Eating a snack post-workout is smart for athletes who are undergoing more than an hour of resistance exercise. However, a protein supplement at this time is not necessarily the best bet; instead, try to eat a mixed meal of carb and protein and, additionally, factor this snack into your day’s diet.
There are many factors, however, that come into play in determining if your muscle mass will grow by increasing protein intake through supplements and diet. The bottom line is that no evidence suggests protein supplements work better than protein consumption from a high-quality diet in increasing muscle mass. And there is limited evidence indicating that highly trained athletes require a daily amount of protein much higher than the DRI. Here are some other factors that play a role in building muscle mass and in your protein needs:
Muscle mass is built when the net protein balance is positive: muscle protein synthesis exceeds muscle protein breakdown. Research shows muscle protein turnover is greatest post-workout (Phillips, et al 1999). Additionally, it has been shown that muscle mass increases over time when resistance exercise (i.e. lifting, body weight exercises, etc) is combined with nutrient intake (Phillips, 2004). The effects of resistance exercise and intaking proper nutrients is also additive, meaning that both are necessary to increase muscle mass and are more effective together than alone—there is an interactive effect. Synthesis of muscle protein following each bout of exercise is small, and these small changes, over time, gradually increase muscle mass. This is why changes in muscle mass are not seen until after months of training (Tipton, et al 2001). Likewise, hypertrophy (increase in muscle volume due to an increase in cell size) is a result of an accumulation of successive periods of positive protein balance after exercise when protein is consumed; hypertrophy takes a while (weeks to months) to attain (Biolo, et al 1995).
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for protein is 0.8 g per kilogram body weight per day. However, many individuals get more than this. High protein diets are familiar to many Americans because of the large amount of meat available in this country. In addition, protein supplements are popular among athletes and body builders.
Made of amino acids, proteins are particularly important because they make up our skeletal muscles, which are necessary for physical activity and basic functions. Furthermore, proteins are constantly degraded and synthesized. Degraded proteins are oxidized or converted to glucose, ultimately excreted as urea in our urine. The inability to recycle amino acids means that proteins are required in our diet. There are 20 amino acids, with 9 being essential to our diet. Meats have all 20 (complete protein), while most plant products do not (incomplete protein). Thus, for vegetarians, it is important to combine sources to get a (i.e. rice and beans).
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