Between the ninth and fifteenth centuries AD, deep in the Cambodian jungle, thrived as the capital of a powerful empire. By the time European traders found Angkor in the late sixteenth century, however, the site, including the famous temple, had been largely abandoned. In the centuries that followed, archaeologists have struggled to understand the city and what happened to it. A study published in September 2007 added weight to the 1950s hypothesis of Bernard-Philippe Groslier that the medieval city had been built for irrigation, especially to counter the region’s unpredictable monsoons, and that it had supported a human population in excess of one million. According to the new study, the Angkor site is the largest pre-industrial city so far known.
A critique of the crowding hypothesis is that crowding could arise from factors other than discrimination. Women may prefer jobs considered womens work, such as the nurturing occupations of nursing and childcare. Human capital factors such as education and skill level may also influence crowding. Another critique is that market competition should eliminate crowding as profit-seeking employers replace high-wage workers with low-wage workers from crowded occupations. In The Crowding Hypothesis (2005) Timothy Bates and Daniel Fusfield reported little evidence of this. They consider racial crowding self-perpetuating because it traps workers in occupations requiring little skill and with high unemployment rates. Workers have little incentive to acquire skills and racial hostility is mutually reinforcedthus crowding is both the cause effect of racial antagonisms and the lack of human capital on the part of blacks and other minority groups (Bates and Fusfield 2005, p. 109). The crowding hypothesis offers a most useful way to think about the problems of urban labor market structures (e.g., low wages, little training, and job insecurity) impacting low-income communities of color. Crowding plays an important role in the black unemployment rate, which has been double the white rate since the mid-1950s.
...research has failed to provide scientific proof that executions have a greater deterrent effect than life imprisonment. Such proof is unlikely to be forthcoming. The evidence as a whole still gives no positive support to the deterrent hypothesis.
Development of the fundamental statistical methods, including graphs, measures of central tendency, and variation. Inferential statistics includes the basic concepts of probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, sampling techniques, regression analysis and correlation, and other analyses of data. Use of statistical software packages. Applications to business, social science, education, and environmental science.