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Figure S9. UV-Vis spectrum of the sub-50 nm spherical gold nanoparticle superstructures formed using BP-A3-PEPAu. The spectrum was collected in HEPES solution. The absorbance maximun is observed at 540 nm.
Figure S10. TEM images of (a) spherical and (b–d) linear gold nanoparticle superstructures. The sample used for the image (a) was produced 20 hrs after adding a first aliquot of the HAuCl4/TEAA solution to a BP-A3-PEPAu solution in HEPES. This TEM grid was stained with 2% phosphotungstic acid. One can observe the sub-50 nm spherical nanoparticle assemblies as well as bare fibrillar structures in this TEM image. The samples used for the images (b–d) were produced in the following way: 1) BP-A3-PEPAu was incubated for 30 min in HEPES buffer and 2) HAuCl4/TEAA solution was added to the BP-A3-PEPAu solution and the resulting mixture was allowed to incubate for 6 hrs, and 3) a second aliquot of the HAuCl4/TEAA solution was added to the mixture and then allowed to incubate for (b) 16 hrs and (c–d) 20 hrs.
Medarova . synthesized a breast tumor-targeted nanodrug designed to specifically shuttle siRNA to human breast cancer while simultaneously allowing for the noninvasive monitoring of the siRNA delivery process . The nanodrug consisted of SPIONs for MRI monitoring, Cy5.5 fluorescence dye for near-infrared (IR) optical imaging, and siRNA to target the tumor-specific antiapoptotic gene . Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are extensively used as multimodal imaging probes in combination with optical fluorescence dyes to obtain the benefits of optical imaging, such as rapid screening and high sensitivity. Because tumor-associated underglycosylated mucin-1 (uMUC-1) antigen is overexpressed in >90% of breast cancers and in >50% of all cancers in humans , researchers have decorated nanodrugs with uMUC-1-targeting EPPT synthetic peptides for selective tumor targeting. As shown in Figure A, amine-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a cross-linked dextran coating (MN) have been prepared, and a Cy5.5 dye was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles to produce MN-Cy5.5. Subsequently, thiol-modified, FITC-labeled EPPT peptides and siRNA were coupled to MN-Cy5.5 via a heterofunctional cross-linker, -succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The resulting therapeutic and diagnostic nanodrug (MN-EPPT-siBIRC5) exhibited superparamagnetic and fluorescence properties. After intravenous injection of the nanodrugs into mice with BT-20 breast tumors, the tumors were clearly imaged, as verified simultaneously by T2 MRI and near-IR optical imaging (Figure B). Systemic administration of the nanodrug once a week over 2 weeks induced considerable levels of necrosis and apoptosis in the tumors as a result of the siBIRC5-mediated inhibition of the antiapoptotic survivin protooncogene, translating into a significant decrease in tumor growth rate (Figure C). This tumor-targeted, imaging-capable nanodrug highlights the potential of MRI-guided tumor treatment, which can be used to quantify changes in the tumor volume over the treatment schedule as well as to guide selection of an optimal treatment time course.
Figure S8. TEM images of sub-50 nm spherical gold nanoparticle superstructures (a–d) 48 hrs after adding HAuCl4/TEAA solution to a BP-A3-PEPAu solution in HEPES. (e) Diameter distribution of superstructures (29.43 ± 0.34 nm; based on 115 counts). (f) Size distribution of gold nanoparticles comprising the superstructures (6.15 ± 0.14 nm; based on 180 counts).
Schematic illustration of the silica nanoporous particle-supported lipid bilayer, depicting the disparate types of therapeutic and diagnostic agents that can be loaded within the nanoporous silica core, as well as the ligands that can be displayed on the surface of the nanoparticle. Reproduced with permission from ref. .
Albumin-templated NIR fluorescent gold nanoclusters were also conjugated with folic acid (FA) and cisplatin prodrug as an integrated theranostic nanoplatform for targeted NIR fluorescence imaging and chemotherapy on 4T1 breast cancer . FA modification significantly improved the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles in the 4T1 breast cancer cells. NIR fluorescence could be used for non-invasive optical bioimaging. In addition, the prepared nanoparticle showed significant inhibition on the growth and lung metastasis of orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors.