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T1 - Hydrothermal synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles

AB - A series of PF-co-doped titanium dioxide (PF-TiO2) samples with various PF contents were synthesized hydrothermally at 250 °C and systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy. For the PF-co-doping of TiO2, hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6) was used. Increasing HPF6 concentration did not decrease the crystallinity of the synthesized samples, but the dopant concentration strongly influenced the size and morphology of the PF-TiO2 nanoparticles. The undoped TiO2 consisted of polymorphic and polydisperse nanoparticles, whereas smaller, predominantly spherical particles were observed for the PF-TiO2 samples. Diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that PF-TiO2 exhibited a slightly higher band gap energy than that of undoped TiO2. Despite this blue-shift in absorption edge, the photocatalytic activity of PF-TiO2 was higher than that of undoped TiO2 even under visible light irradiation. The effects of the dopant concentration on the structure and photocatalytic activity are discussed in detail.

Hydrothermal synthesis has been undertaken successfully by many different scientists at various times for a period of more than one hundred years. Perhaps the man who contributed most to the advancement of this technique, and to whom later workers owe the greatest debt, was an Italian named Spezia. His work led the way to the efforts of the I.G. Farben group in their production of synthetic emerald in the early to mid-1930s, to those of the Bell-Laboratories in synthetic quartz, and presumably, to Gilson, Chatham and Linde's initial efforts as well.

T1 - Hydrothermal synthesis, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of hexagonal Fe3O4 microplates

Hydrothermal synthesis - Royal Society of Chemistry

Hydrothermal synthesis is an emerging bottom-up technique to produce nanostructure in much facile way. Nevertheless, the attention to gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) on measurement tools used during the synthesize process was not given accordingly. In this work, an assessment on pH meter was conducted since pH value is one of the main parameter need to be precisely controlled in WO3 hydrothermal synthesis process. Using ANOVA method, series of measurement metrics was developed and later analyzed statistically using Minitab software. Initially, GR&R value of 17.55% was calculated and when the study repeated with revised measurement procedure, the GR&R was further reduced to 2.05%. This value proved that the pH meter used for the measurement is very reliable. This will ensure pH value was accurately measured hence a consistent and controlled nanostructure produced via hydrothermal synthesis can be achieved.

In the 1960s, a new method of hydrothermal flux synthesis was applied to Emerald creation. This method is largely used today in the creation of synthetic Emeralds. The technique involves dissolving the crystal nutrients in an acidic solution of water and chemicals at high temperatures and pressures, with crystallization occurring in a cooler chamber in the reactor. These early versions of the present-day hydrothermal Emerald creation were known as Emerita and Symerald.

Hydrothermal Synthesis - Asia Giant

Hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). Powder of OCP was hydrothermally treated with distilled water at 120-240°C for 3-24 h. Only diffraction lines assigned to HA were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) even after the treatment at 120°C for 3 h. The crystallinity of the formed HA increased with increasing the treatment temperature and period. Plate-shaped particles were split into small strip-shaped particles by the hydrothermal treatment and this phenomenon was obvious when the treatment temperature was high and the period was long. However, the plate-shape morphology was remained when OCP was transformed to HA at 120°C for 3 h. The hydrothermal treatment of OCP is useful to synthesize the plate-shaped HA particles in a short period.

Lab-created or synthetic emerald material can be created by placing a beryl seed in a sealed, pressurized container. The container is filled with extremely pure water. A nutrient containing crushed emerald and other compounds such as vanadium and chromium is introduced into the hydrothermal environment and an electrical charge is passed through the chamber to ionize the environment and the unit is slowly heated in an autoclave. As the heat and pressure build in the sealed environment, to about 1800 degrees Fahrenheit and 800psi, the environment reaches equilibrium and the molecular de-stasis process begins. Molecules of the nutrient are stripped away and are attracted to and reform on the larger and more solid emerald seed. These crystals grow at a rate of approximately 0.15mm per day, so a large crystal takes many weeks to form.

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Effect of hydrothermal duration on synthesis of WO 3 nanorods


New Materials in Hydrothermal Synthesis

N2 - A series of PF-co-doped titanium dioxide (PF-TiO2) samples with various PF contents were synthesized hydrothermally at 250 °C and systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy. For the PF-co-doping of TiO2, hexafluorophosphoric acid (HPF6) was used. Increasing HPF6 concentration did not decrease the crystallinity of the synthesized samples, but the dopant concentration strongly influenced the size and morphology of the PF-TiO2 nanoparticles. The undoped TiO2 consisted of polymorphic and polydisperse nanoparticles, whereas smaller, predominantly spherical particles were observed for the PF-TiO2 samples. Diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that PF-TiO2 exhibited a slightly higher band gap energy than that of undoped TiO2. Despite this blue-shift in absorption edge, the photocatalytic activity of PF-TiO2 was higher than that of undoped TiO2 even under visible light irradiation. The effects of the dopant concentration on the structure and photocatalytic activity are discussed in detail.

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Titania

N2 - Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, obtained by hydrolyzing titanium isopropoxide in distilled water, were used to synthesize BaTiO3 (BT) nanopowder by the hydrothermal method. When titanium isopropoxide was used, BT nanopowder with a low tetragonality of 1.0070 was formed because of the presence of OH- ions in the oxygen sites and Ba vacancies. However, by changing the titanium source from titanium isopropoxide to TiO2 nanoparticles, a homogeneous BT nanopowder with similar particle size and a high tetragonality of 1.0081 was synthesized. The size of the BT nanopowder particles was decreased by reducing the synthesis time. In particular, the BT nanopowder that was synthesized at 220°C for 16 h with a Ba/Ti molar ratio of 4.0 exhibited a high tetragonality of 1.0083 and a small particle size of 126.0 nm.

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hematite Nanoparticles and …

Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, obtained by hydrolyzing titanium isopropoxide in distilled water, were used to synthesize BaTiO3 (BT) nanopowder by the hydrothermal method. When titanium isopropoxide was used, BT nanopowder with a low tetragonality of 1.0070 was formed because of the presence of OH- ions in the oxygen sites and Ba vacancies. However, by changing the titanium source from titanium isopropoxide to TiO2 nanoparticles, a homogeneous BT nanopowder with similar particle size and a high tetragonality of 1.0081 was synthesized. The size of the BT nanopowder particles was decreased by reducing the synthesis time. In particular, the BT nanopowder that was synthesized at 220°C for 16 h with a Ba/Ti molar ratio of 4.0 exhibited a high tetragonality of 1.0083 and a small particle size of 126.0 nm.

A simple hydrothermal process for fabrication of hematite ..

AB - Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, obtained by hydrolyzing titanium isopropoxide in distilled water, were used to synthesize BaTiO3 (BT) nanopowder by the hydrothermal method. When titanium isopropoxide was used, BT nanopowder with a low tetragonality of 1.0070 was formed because of the presence of OH- ions in the oxygen sites and Ba vacancies. However, by changing the titanium source from titanium isopropoxide to TiO2 nanoparticles, a homogeneous BT nanopowder with similar particle size and a high tetragonality of 1.0081 was synthesized. The size of the BT nanopowder particles was decreased by reducing the synthesis time. In particular, the BT nanopowder that was synthesized at 220°C for 16 h with a Ba/Ti molar ratio of 4.0 exhibited a high tetragonality of 1.0083 and a small particle size of 126.0 nm.

Hydrothermal Synthesis - SciMed

N2 - M-vanadate hydroxyapatites and M-phosphate hydroxyapatites (M = Ca, Sr, and Pb) were synthesized at 110 °C for 14 h under a hydrothermal condition. The prepared powders were characterized by the ICP chemical analysis, the powder X-ray diffraction, the TEM observation, the nitrogen physisorption, the TG analysis, and the CO2-TPD measurements. The catalytic properties for the reaction of 2-propanol depended on the component ions of the prepared hydroxyapatites. In an argon atmosphere, the acetone selectivity of the prepared hydroxyapatite catalysts increased in the following order: Ca

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