Qualitative research may alsobe interested in the selection and analysis of outliers in order to explainthe reasons for the deviation from the general pattern observed in thedata.
A promisingand practical approach to ensuring a certain degree of representativityis to draw the sample of communities or individuals for the qualitativeresearch from the sampling frame that is used for the quantitative stageof the research (see Chapters 4, 6, and 8).
The unique or outlier response has value in contributing to understanding the experience of others, and thus individual responses are not lost in the aggregation of findings or in the development of research group consensus. To you by sage › forums › default forum › test of hypotheses in qualitative topic contains 4 replies, has 5 voices, and was last updated by marlo manahan 1 month g 5 posts - 1 through 5 (of 5 total). The concepts of validity and reliability originally evolved from the quantitative tradition, and therefore their accepted definitions are considered inadequate for qualitative research.
Qualitative research(QR) is way to gain a deeper understanding of an event, organization or culture. Depending on what type of phenomenon you are studying, QR can give you a broad understanding of events, data about human groups, and broad patterns behind events and people. While traditional lab-based research looks for a specific “something” in the testing environment, qualitative research allows the meaning, themes, or data to emerge from the study.
Qualitative research methods “explore, describe, or generate theory, especially for uncertain and ‘immature’ concepts; sensitive and socially dependent concepts; and complex human intentions and motivations. Variety of ways to collect information are available to researchers, such as observation, field notes, reflexive journals, interviews, focus groups, and analysis of documents and materials; table 2 provides examples of these methods. Dependability is gained though consistency of data, which is evaluated through transparent research steps and research findings.
However, despite significant progress in promoting integrated approaches,many researchers from both quantitative and qualitative traditions stilloften find it difficult to make full use of the data collection methodsand analysis from the other tradition.
However,there is now a growing body of experience in the development field demonstratingthe benefits which can be achieved from multi-method research integratingquantitative and qualitative methods, some of which is reported in thisvolume.
Quantitativeresearchers also complain that their important messages on the incidenceand determinants of key development variables such as malnutrition, usageof health services and consumption-expenditure measures of poverty; andon the poverty consequences of economic variables such as price changes,agricultural marketing policies etc are dismissed as being "too macro"by many qualitative researchers.
Qualitative researchersalso express the concern that even after collaborative research efforts,the survey researchers still do not understand the true nature of a complexphenomenon such as poverty.
Most of this publicationis devoted to presenting examples of promising approaches to integratedquantitative and qualitative research which have been used in the WorldBank and other development institutions.
After tracing the increasing interestof the World Bank and other development agencies in the use of integratedresearch approaches, this chapter addresses the following four issues:(a) the definition of qualitative and quantitative research methods; (b)potential benefits from the use of integrated approaches; (c) issues andchallenges in the use of integrated approaches in development work; and,finally, (d) whether there is an integrated research approach that consistsof more than simply using a wider range of data collection methods.
Evolutionof World Bank Interest in Multi-Method ApproachesA number of factors have contributed to the World Banks growing interestin the integration of quantitative and qualitative research methods.
For example, a group of babies may be exposed, one at a time, to a laboratory situation called . A stony-faced stranger approaches the mother and takes the baby out of her arms. Around the age of 7-8 months, some babies seem to find this very alarming. Some cry even at the sight of an approaching stranger. However, not all babies go through this "stranger anxiety" phase. Researchers can test hypotheses about what factors make stranger anxiety more or less likely by testing a variety of mother/baby pairs. The controlled setting and carefully arranged conditions allow researchers to compare reactions of different children.
The Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (pronounced pea-a-ZHAY) used a clinical method. He interviewed children to determine how they viewed the world. Piaget interacted spontaneously with the children and often improvised questions. Some American developmental psychologists criticized this as an uncontrolled type of research, difficult to repeat. Others felt Piaget made valuable contributions because he allowed himself to base each question on what the child said previously. We discuss Piaget in Chapter 10 (Development).