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11. What is a proposal anyway? A good proposal should consist of thefirst three chapters of the dissertation. It should begin with a statementof the problem/background information (typically Chapter I of the dissertation),then move on to a review of the literature (Chapter 2), and conclude witha defining of the research methodology (Chapter 3). Of course, it shouldbe written in a future tense since it is a proposal. To turn a good proposalinto the first three chapters of the dissertation consists of changingthe tense from future tense to past tense (from "This is what I wouldlike to do" to "This is what I did") and making any changesbased on the way you actually carried out the research when compared tohow you proposed to do it. Often the intentions we state in our proposalturn out different in reality and we then have to make appropriate editorialchanges to move it from proposal to dissertation.
8. Read through someone else's research proposal. Very oftena real stumbling block is that we don't have an image in our mind of whatthe finished research proposal should look like. How has the other proposalbeen organized? What are the headings that have been used? Does the otherproposal seem clear? Does it seem to suggest that the writer knows thesubject area? Can I model my proposal after one of the ones thatI've seen? If you can't readily find a proposal or two to look at, askyour adviser to see some. Chances are your adviser has a file drawer filled withthem.
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9. Make sure your proposal has a comprehensive review of the literatureincluded. Now this idea, at first thought, may not seem to make sense.I have heard many students tell me that "This is only the proposal.I'll do a complete literature search for the dissertation. I don't wantto waste the time now." But, this is the time to do it. The rationalebehind the literature review consists of an argument with two lines of analysis: 1) this research is needed, and 2) the methodology I have chosen is most appropriate for the question that is being asked. Now, why would you want to wait? Now is the time to get informed and to learn from others who havepreceded you! If you wait until you are writing the dissertation it is toolate. You've got to do it some time so you might as well get on with itand do it now. Plus, you will probably want to add to the literature reviewwhen you're writing the final dissertation.
FrameworkSenior research projects in Environmental Sciences have the following elementsin common:The final outcome of this process is a senior thesis that you will completein the spring semester. The goal of the fall semester is thatyou identify a research topic, find a research mentor, formulate a hypothesis,understand the background of your project, develop or adapt appropriatemethods, and summarize the state of your project as a thesis proposal.
The purpose of writing a thesis proposal is to demonstrate thatIf you can outline these points clearly in a proposal, then you willbe able to focus on a research topic and finish it rapidly. A secondary purpose of the proposal is to train you in the art of proposalwriting. Any future career in Environmental Sciences, whether itbe in industry or academia will require these skills in some form.
We are well aware that the best laid out research plans may go awry,and that the best completed theses sometimes bear only little resemblanceto the thesis planned during the proposal.
Therefore, when evaluating athesis proposal, we are not trying to assure ourselves that you have clearlydescribed a sure-fire research project with 0% risk of failure.
The next paragraphs in the introduction should cite previous research in this area. It should cite those who had the idea or ideas first, and should also cite those who have done the most recent and relevant work. You should then go on to explain why more work was necessary (your work, of course.)
Usually a guide of this nature focuses on the actual implementationof the research. This is not the focus of this guide. Instead of examiningsuch aspects as identifying appropriate sample size, field testing theinstrument and selecting appropriate statistical tests, this guide looksat many of the quasi-political aspects of the process. Such topics as howto select a supportive committee, making a compelling presentation of yourresearch outcomes and strategies for actually getting the paper writtenare discussed.
If you can present a clear and reasonable thesis idea,if you can clearly relate it to other relevant literature, if you can justifyits significance, if you can describe a method for investigating it, andif you can decompose it into a sequence of steps that lead toward a reasonableconclusion, then the thesis proposal is a success regardless of whetheryou modify or even scrap the actual idea down the line and start off ina different direction.
What a successful thesis proposal demonstrates isthat, regardless of the eventual idea you pursue, you know the steps involvedin turning it into a thesis.
Scientific Literature and Writing - BiologyIn general, the introduction of a research proposal should: 1) Summarize the current state of knowledge
2) Identify the gap, question, or problemthat motivates study
3) Provide the objective(s) of studyIn the Methods section of a research proposal:Here's a 'sample' research proposal:
Introduction American Kestrels () are widelydistributed throughout North America.