Monkeys, apes, and humans have many traits in common, and one is that members of "out-groups" are fair game. Chimpanzees are the only non-human animals today that form ranked hunting parties, and they are also the only ones that form hunting parties to . Distinct from the killer ape hypothesis, which posits that humans are instinctually violent, the chimpanzee violence hypothesis proposes that chimps only engage in warfare when it makes economic sense: when the benefits of eliminating rivals outweigh the risks/costs. Macaque wars and revolutions appear spontaneously, but chimp wars have calculation behind them, which befits a chimp’s advanced cognitive abilities; they plan murderous raids and carry them out. It is quite probable that the advancing toolset of protohumans was used for coalitionary killing when perceived benefits exceeded assessed risks/costs. Just as with , these traits probably also existed in our last common ancestor. Other animals also engage in intra-species violence, which includes spiders when key resources are scarce and contested, and when ant colonies have power imbalances, they can trigger invasion and extermination by the larger colony. But human and chimpanzee warfare is uniquely organized and calculating.
A has challenged The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis, at least as far as robbing energy from the digestive system to fuel the brain. The study compared brain and intestinal size in mammals and found no strong correlation, but there was an inverse correlation between brain size and body fat. But since human fat does not impede our locomotion much, humans have combined both strategies for reducing the risk of starvation. Whales have bucked the trend, also because being fatter does not impede their locomotion and provides energy-conserving insulation. A human infant’s brain uses about 75% of its energy, and baby fat seems to be brain protection, so that it does not easily run out of fuel. However, the rapid evolutionary growth of an energy-demanding organ like the human brain seems unique or nearly so in the history of life on Earth, and comparative anatomy studies may have limited explanatory utility. There are great debates today on how fast the human brain grew, what coevolutionary constraints may have limited the brain’s development (, , ), and scientific investigations are in their early days.
(3) From only observable data, it is mathematically predicted that our universe is designed and produced by a higher-intelligence.
(Isaiah 55:8-9, etc.) Relative to (4), mathematical modeling has established the rationality of significant theological concepts and this fact counters the atheists pronouncements that such concepts are "irrational." This site also contains information not directly related to intelligent design nor the GGU-model.
Another example of irreducible complexity is the system that allows proteins to reach the appropriate subcellular compartments. In the eukaryotic cell there are a number of places where specialized tasks, such as digestion of nutrients and excretion of wastes, take place. Proteins are synthesized outside these compartments and can reach their proper destinations only with the help of “signal” chemicals that turn other reactions on and off at the appropriate times. This constant, regulated traffic flow in the cell comprises another remarkably complex, irreducible system. All parts must function in synchrony or the system breaks down. Still another example is the exquisitely coordinated mechanism that causes blood to clot.
What seems to explain invader and endemic success with those migrations is what kind of continent the invaders came from, what kind of continent they invaded, and the invasion route. Asia contains large arctic and tropical biomes, unlike any other continent. North America barely reaches the tropics and only a finger of South America reaches high latitudes, and well short of what would be called arctic latitudes in North America. Africa’s biomes were all tropical and near-tropical. The route to was straight across at the same latitude, so the biomes were similar. About the same is true of the route to Africa from Asia. Asian immigrants were not migrating to climates much different from what they left. But the route to North America was via , which was an Arctic route. Primates and other tropical animals could not migrate from Asia to North America via Beringia, and even fauna from temperate climates were not going to make that journey, not in Icehouse Earth conditions. Oligocene North America was geographically protected in ways that Oligocene Europe and Africa were not, and it already had substantial exchanges with Asia before and was a big continent with diverse biomes in its own right. It was not nearly as isolated as Africa, South America, and Australia were.
Whatever the causes were, the early Miocene was warm, and as with around the North Pole, migrating in the Arctic became easy again, and North America was invaded by Eurasian animals . The prominent descended from Asian migrants, and the strange-looking was also an Asian immigrant, which had claws on its forefeet, like a sloth’s. also migrated from Asia, and the arrived. Those North American days saw of a that was rhino-sized. A lived then, and the appeared in the early Miocene and migrated to Asia from North America. The general Oligocene cooling gave rise to tough, gritty plants, and deer, antelope, elephants, rodents, horses, camels, rhinos, and others developed , which had greatly expanded enamel surfaces for grinding those plants. Carnivores also migrated from Asia, such as , an , and . North America’s rodents and rabbits, , continued to diversify. Later in the Miocene’s warm period, the trickle of Asian immigrants became a flood, including a that weighed up to 600 kilograms (1,300 pounds), and two large groups of immigrant rhinos, and several genera , displaced endemic ones. In a late-Pliocene count of North American mammalian genera, a third were not native to North America. But North American fauna was unscathed compared to other continents. Below is an artist's conception of Miocene North America. (Source: public domain from Wikipedia)
In the oceans, the Miocene warm period meant expanding reefs, and tropical conditions again visited high latitudes, but not to the early Eocene’s extent. Corals, mollusks, , and all expanded and diversified in the warm period. Also, the first appearance of the closest thing to marine forests was in the Miocene, when developed about 20 mya. Kelp forest denizens such as and the ancestors of also appeared in the Miocene. Seals are closely related to bears and otters, from . Whales radiated in the warm Miocene oceans, and was not far behind. The first appeared in the Miocene, and they specialized in eating polar krill. They were the last whales hunted nearly to extinction by humans, after . Rorquals were fast swimmers and until whaling became industrialized.
In recent years, Neogene temperatures have been the focus of intensive research. What appears to be the proximate cause of elevated temperatures was a dramatic change in global ocean currents. The final closing of the , the isolation of Antarctica, the creation of , and the opening and closing of land bridges, such as in the Bering Sea and ultimately the land bridge between North and South America, created dramatic changes in ocean currents and global climate. One result was fluctuating . Its production declined beginning about 24 mya, and its weakness lasted until about 14 mya. Consequently, Earth’s oceans were not stratified as they are today, and warm water extended far lower into the oceans than it does today. Also, it reduced the temperature gradient between the equator and poles, which drives global currents: the greater the differential, the more vigorous the currents. It was still an Icehouse Earth, but the “mid-Miocene climatic optimum” was relatively warm. The past three million years are the coldest that Earth has seen since the that ended 260 mya, but this . While the steadily declining carbon dioxide levels of the past 150-100 million years is the ultimate cause of this Icehouse Earth phase, relatively short-term and regional fluctuations have had their proximate causes rooted in other geophysical, geochemical, and celestial dynamics.
The Oligocene ended with a sudden global warming that continued into the (c. 23 to 5.3 mya). The Miocene was also the first epoch of the (c. 23 to 2.6 mya). Although the Miocene was , England had palm trees again, Antarctic ice sheets melted, and oceans rose. The Miocene is also called the Golden Age of Mammals. Scientists still wrestle with why Earth’s temperature increased in the late Oligocene, but there is no doubt that it did. As the has demonstrated, many dynamics impact Earth’s climate, and positive and negative feedbacks can produce dramatic changes. For the several million year warm period, carbon dioxide levels do not appear to have been elevated. That data has been seized on by as evidence that carbon dioxide levels have nothing to do with Earth’s temperature, but climate scientists not rarely think that way. Carbon dioxide is only one greenhouse gas, and . But as clouds demonstrate, water is notoriously ephemeral, constantly evaporating and precipitating, and some land can get a lot (rainforests), and some can get very little (deserts). Icehouse Earth temperatures are more variable than Greenhouse Earth temperatures, particularly during the transitions between states, and an Icehouse Earth atmosphere contains less water vapor than a Greenhouse Earth atmosphere.