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This video is about how ketone body synthesis

Fatty acid oxidation
Fatty acids have to be activated prior to their entry into mitochondrial matrix where the enzymes of β-oxidation of fatty acids are located. Activated fatty acids are then transported from cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix with the help of carnitine transporter. Total net yield of ATP per molecule of palmitic acid is 129. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Β-oxidation in peroxisomes involves three enzymatic reactions. Minor pathways of oxidation such as α-oxidation of branched chain fatty acids and ω-oxidation of medium and long chain fatty acids in microsomes do take place in our body.

Ketone body metabolism
Ketone bodies are acetoacetate, β-hydroxy butyrate and acetone. Ketone bodies are synthesized in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues as fuels. Ketone bodies are accumulated in the blood if the rate of synthesis exceeds the ability of extra hepatic tissues to utilize them. This leads to excess ketone bodies in blood, excretion of ketone bodies in urine and smell of acetone in breath. All these three together are known as ketosis. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, ketone bodies are formed.

Fatty acid oxidation
Fatty acids have to be activated prior to their entry into mitochondrial matrix where the enzymes of β-oxidation of fatty acids are located. Activated fatty acids are then transported from cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix with the help of carnitine transporter. Total net yield of ATP per molecule of palmitic acid is 129. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Β-oxidation in peroxisomes involves three enzymatic reactions. Minor pathways of oxidation such as α-oxidation of branched chain fatty acids and ω-oxidation of medium and long chain fatty acids in microsomes do take place in our body.

Ketone body metabolism
Ketone bodies are acetoacetate, β-hydroxy butyrate and acetone. Ketone bodies are synthesized in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues as fuels. Ketone bodies are accumulated in the blood if the rate of synthesis exceeds the ability of extra hepatic tissues to utilize them. This leads to excess ketone bodies in blood, excretion of ketone bodies in urine and smell of acetone in breath. All these three together are known as ketosis. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, ketone bodies are formed.

The related pathways of ketone body and cholesterol synthesis are also included.

and ketone body synthesis can ..

into the other two as shown KETONE BODY SYNTHESIS ..

Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins. Fatty acids are activated, transported across mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine transporter. β -oxidation of saturated fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, excessive ketone bodies are formed, leading to ketosis. Fatty acid biosynthesis takes place in the cytosol of cells. Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the precursor of fatty acid synthesis as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to deposition of cholesterol plaques in the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are synthesized from twenty carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Phosphatidic acid is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. In sphingolipids, sphingosine is present as an alcohol.

Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins. Fatty acids are activated, transported across mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine transporter. β -oxidation of saturated fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, excessive ketone bodies are formed, leading to ketosis. Fatty acid biosynthesis takes place in the cytosol of cells. Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the precursor of fatty acid synthesis as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to deposition of cholesterol plaques in the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are synthesized from twenty carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Phosphatidic acid is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. In sphingolipids, sphingosine is present as an alcohol.

LIGHT SOURCES AND IMPORTANCE OF RELEASE

Ketone bodies are utilized by extra hepatic tissues via a series of cytosolic reactions that are essentially a reversal of ketone body synthesis; the ketones must be reconverted to acetyl Co A in the mitochondria (figure-1)

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Practice Questions | Biochemistry for Medics – Lecture …


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