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Pathway Commons::Lysine biosynthesis regulatory …

...y, another, completely different method has evolved for the biosynthesis of lysine (33) involving the intermediate compound �-amino adipic acid. The �-amino adipic acid pathway is found in most fungi =-=(32)-=-, and a modification of it is found in selected eubacterial and archaeal species (21). Four different variants of the m-DAP-lysine pathway have been discerned, and they are depicted in Fig. 1. All sha...

...pp-2B (see Table S1 in the supplemental material). Enzymes coded by the dap operon are key to the conversion of L-aspartate to L-lysine, which is an important component of the cell wall peptidoglycan =-=(55, 56)-=-. Activation of the transport system for glycine betaine (SA1987) and proline betaine (proP) is supposed to increase the glycine pool (51), which is an immediate amino acid for cell wall peptidoglycan...

Molecular evolution of the lysine biosynthetic pathways …

The aminoadipate pathway for the biosynthesis of lysine in fungi is …

Histidine is special in that its biosynthesis is inherently linked to thepathways of nucleotide formation. Histidine residues are often found in enzymeactive sites, where the chemistry of the imidazole ring of histidine makes it anucleophile and a good acid/base catalyzer. We now know that RNA can havecatalytic properties, and there has been speculation that life was originallyRNA-based. Perhaps the transition to protein catalysis from RNA catalysisoccurred at the origin of histidine biosynthesis.

We will look at this pathway in a bit more detail, because it involves themolecule 5-phosphoribosyl--pyrophosphate (which wewill refer to as "PRPP" from now on). PRPP is also involved in thesynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, as we will soon see. In the first step ofhistidine synthesis, PRPP condenses with ATP to form a purine, N1-5'-phosphoribosylATP, in a reaction that is driven by the subsequent hydrolysis of thepyrophosphate that condenses out. Glutamine again plays a role as an amino groupdonor, this time resulting in the formation of 5-aminoamidazole-4-carboximideribonucleotide (ACAIR), which is an intermediate in purine biosynthesis.

KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways - Reference pathway

Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple pathways for lysine biosynthesis and multiple gene sets for arginine biosynthesis.

...only. The exact function of these genes is still uncertain, however; at least some of the genes of the diaminopimelate pathway for lysine biosynthesis appear to be present in the genomes of pyrococci =-=(74)-=-. In Sulfolobus, lysine was found to regulate the synthesis of mRNA from a gene cluster annotated argC, argB (lysZ), lysM (lrp-like), lysW, lysX, argD (lysJ), and argE (lysK), but involvement of these...

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Amino acid synthesis - Wikipedia

Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown

No species having a sequence in this family contains the elements of the more common diaminopimelate lysine biosythesis pathway, and none has been shown to be a lysine auxotroph.

Amino Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

LysX is believed to carry out an ATP-dependent acylation of the amino group of alpha-aminoadipate in the prokaryotic version of the fungal AAA lysine biosynthesis pathway.

Control of Gene Expression - The Medical Biochemistry …

...nhanced through gene context analysis. For example, in the case of lysine biosynthesis, three alternative routes are described in the literature: the succinylase, dehydrogenase and acetylase branches =-=(61)-=-. During the study of Frankia alni genome, MaGe annotations combined with the FrankiaCyc PGDB revealed only one possible pathway involving the succinylase branch (Figure 4A). All of the genes coding f...

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