The following table summarizes the approximate sequence in which the meteorites impacted the Earth basedon the principles of the meteorite cluster impact hypothesis and the analysis of the overlapping features. Circle 9 is notincluded because it does not overlap with other circles. Circle 8 could have been formed before circle 5,but the fact that a trace of its rim appears within circle 7 indicates that 8 and 7 are contemporaneous,and 7 was definitely formed after 5. The relative sequence of circles 4 and 6 is not known, but circle 6 was formedafter circle 3 because the circular arc from Lat: 18.932751, Lon: 8.643535 to Lat: 19.017247, Lon: 8.765090overlays a portion of circle 3, and the arc is overlaid by circle 6. Circle 4 and circle 6 both overlaya small 6-kilometer circle with a center at Lat: 18.880376, Lon: 8.850997, so this makes 4 and 6 contemporaneous.
Application of the meteorite cluster impact hypothesis to the structures of Aïr Massif makes it possible to identify the sequence in which some of the meteorites impacted the Earth, and it also provides an explanation for how the great Meugueur-Meugueurring structure was formed. Additional deductions can be made about the temperature distribution of the surface,and perhaps about how much time elapsed between the meteorite strikes based on how some structures created by early impacts reacted to subsequent impacts.
This paper describes a hypothesis of how the observed features could have been created bya series of closely-spaced meteorite impacts all of which occurred within approximately one minute. The hypothesis makes use of 1) observations of apparent impactsalong a line of flight that would be typical of a meteorite cluster, 2) considerationof the results that would be produced by the impacts of objects of different sizes ontop of each other, and 3) explanation of the observed overlapping ring structures onthe basis of the behavior of fluids subjected to impacts.
There have been many different ideas put forward to explain why the dinosuars died out. The two most likely are that their habitat slowly changed, and that a meteor impact triggered their extinction.
The gradualist hypothesis points to declines in the numbers and diversity of different groups of land and marine animals.
It suggests that the extinction of these groups was due to climate change. The climate at the end of the Cretaceous was cooling - and a fall in sea level reduced dinosaur and shallow water marine animal habitats.
The impact hypothesis gets a lot of press coverage because it is spectacular. There is good geophysical evidence for the occurrence of an asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous.
A band of clay rich in the mineral iridium was deposited at the end of the Cretaceous and has been found at many places in the world. This mineral is rare on Earth but more common in meteorites.
It has been suggested that the impact would have triggered a nuclear winter scenario that would have caused the death of the dinosaurs as well as the pterosaurs, several families of birds and mammals and also marine animals such as the plesiosaurs and ammonites.
At the end of the Cretaceous there were a lot of volcanic eruptions, at least in some parts of the world.
The Deccan Traps, huge flood basalts, were deposited at this time, and the dust and gases erupted at the same time would have had caused environmental changes over a wide area.
Unfortunately, while these hypotheses are plausible and they can both explain how many animals went extinct, neither can explain why certain animals died out while others survived. Why did the dinosaurs, which were so successful, die out, while other animals such as frogs, which we know are environmentally sensitive, survive?
Although it is usually assumed that the dinosaurs all went extinct all at the same time all over the world, the truth of the matter is that we only have high resolution data for North America. In other parts of the world there is either no terrestrial record or we do not have good enough age resolution. It is likely that as China and other countries outside of Europe and the US are studied more intensively we will be able to gather more data and build up a more comprehensive picture of what was going on in the world at the end of the Cretaceous period.
A closely-related theory is the Spaceship Moon Theory, or for you science buffs out there, the Vasin-Shcherbakov Theory. This theory takes the concept of a hollow moon one step further into pure science fiction territory. In an by Michael Vasin and Alexander Shcherbakov published in 1970 it was hypothesised that the Moon was actually an artificial, hollowed out Earth satellite that had been put into place by unknown beings. Vasin and Shcherbakov were members of the then Soviet Academy of Sciences, but the article was published not in a science journal but in Sputnik, a sort of Soviet Reader’s Digest. In the article they refused to speculate what type of unknown beings put the artificial satellite in the Earth’s orbit, but we do think that this is a discussion that should be had at another time. We won’t go too in depth into the finer details of this theory, as we could talk about it for a while, but the general feeling of this article that was produced is that the Moon is made of up everything that a spaceship could be made of, such as materials that can withstand both extreme heat and cold and are extremely tough so could withstand blow from meteorites. Some of Vasin and Shcherbakov’s article claims mica, uranium, brass (a human-made alloy) and neptunium (a radioactive element which does not exist in nature) were discovered in samples returned by Apollo missions but this is not in the original article and is also untrue. Sadly not everything you read on the internet is to be believed.
What about the mantle, we hear you ask? The mantle is directly under the crust of the Moon (the part that we can visibly see) and it divides the crust from the core. Now to get down to some hard core science (see what we did? Fine…no more bad jokes). It is believed that the mantle of the moon consists of the minerals olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. The actual composition of the Moon’s mantle is very similar to that of the Earth’s, however it is thought that the Moon’s mantle is richer in iron.
The Moon will always play a large role when it comes to Earth and it will still be the inspiration for many science fiction masterpieces. In fact another idea has recently cropped up in the SF world about the Moon. In the Doctor Who episode (2014), it was stated that the Moon was actually a giant alien egg! The egg started to crack and a giant alien popped out of it and conveniently laid another Moon-sized egg. Think of that what you will!
Great article and it educated me a lot on the subject but couldn’t the moon being way older than earth support the idea of the moon being a hollow object? Can we prove the moon was always at that spot? science also supports the Big Bang theory and obviously the moon was formed by it if it were much older. When did the moon arrive to its current place/orbit? What made it stop from crashing into earth? Could it just be a spaceship developed but advanced beings to withstand all sort of things in space? There are drawings and sculptures in the south of Iraq of Giant winged beings that landed on earth and created us, at least according to what they believed. Them being giant, winged and being far advanced doesn’t proof they could build a giant moon/spaceship but it surely helps it? I would love to read more about the subject. The possibility of the moon being hallow would further many theories I have about What we are, where we came from and and possibly religion. Making sure I have concrete evidence is a bit more than interesting to me